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books in essay mla The Writing Center. Empire State College. Genesee Valley Center. GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS. IN THE MLA STYLE. What Is New Imperialism! This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the MLA style. For more complete information, see the MLA Style Manual or The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers . The Writing Center has these and other resources on hand. You can also find them at most libraries or purchase them at nephew, all major bookstores. The MLA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the Modern Language Association . The MLA style is used in is new imperialism some areas of the advantages and disadvantages of wireless, humanities, e.g., composition and literature.

Other humanities disciplines such as history, philosophy, and religion may require other styles for formatting your papers. Ask your Primary Mentor which style to is new, use, then come to the Writing Center for further guidance . Basic MLA Facts. Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Unless otherwise instructed, use one-inch margins top, bottom, left, and right. Use parenthetical citations to acknowledge direct quotations, indirect quotations, and/or any ideas you have borrowed from another person. Use a Works Cited page for reference to parenthetical citations. Underline (or italicize) titles of merger and acquisition, books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals), films, television programs, and record albums/CDs. Place within quotation marks newspaper/magazine articles, essays in a book, songs, poems (except long poems published as a book), book chapters, episodes of a television show, and lectures. Number pages in is new the upper right hand corner of the page. Use present tense to introduce cited or quoted material and to make personal comments on such materials.

Use past tense only when directly quoting a passage that is in past tense or when reporting historical events. As Winkleman states in the novel Diary of and acquisition, a Madman , I was never ignorant (293). Winkleman's purpose in Diary of what, a Madman is to point out the innate imperfection of humans. Moore created Winkleman not only to use as a pen name, but also to use as a semi-fictional forum through which the author could express his own opinions. Plagiarism is the use of the words and/or ideas of another person without disclosing the source. Whether deliberate or unintentional, plagiarism can lead to and acquisition, failure in a course and/or dismissal from college. To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a Works Cited page. What Is New! Always cite direct quotations (see below) . Which True And 15n?! If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, don't simply rearrange the words. Instead, make sure to use your own style of writing and language, and use an in-text citation to acknowledge the what is new imperialism, source. Then, list on the Works Cited page the publications or sources from which you obtained your citations. The Writing Center here at merger and acquisition, GVC has a separate handout on this called, Plagiarism and what is new imperialism How to Avoid it: Guidelines for Students.

I. In-text Citations. And Career! Cite the first appearance of or reference to another person's words or ideas by introducing the quotation, paraphrase, or citation with the author's full name exactly as it appears in the source, but exclude titles such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss, Dr., Reverend , etc. Be sure to include the page number(s) on which the is new imperialism, cited material can be found. You may also choose to include the title of the cited text in the first reference. Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, to write good fiction, authors of short fiction must master grammar and punctuation (17). The phrase Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, . is the signal phrase in this example. Peacey also states that today's writers must not use gender-specific language(17). Authors Name Not Used in Text.

If you don't use the author's name in the text, place only the last name within the and career, parenthetical citation with the page number. In the parenthetical citation, don't use p. or pp. to indicate page number(s), and don't include the text's title. Although many consider Lovejoy's collection titled My Art: The Stories the perfect model for writing short stories, most creative writing teachers dismiss it as pretentious, trashy, and inane (Peacey 333). More Than One Author. If a cited source has more than one author, either include all names in the parenthetical citation according to how they are listed in the source, or list the first author followed by et. What Is New! al. Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, Banya, Benis, and choices Cramer 814). Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, et. al. 814). Trent Lovejoy uses a variety of what imperialism, avian symbolism in his fiction.

Doves represent peace. Eagles stand for self-deterministic freedom. Merger And Acquisition! Ravens signify the mysterious. Vultures symbolize either death or opportunism. By doing so, he has kept alive a cliched symbolistic literature in America (Crowe 19). In comparison, the following passage clearly delineates words and ideas, and the reader of this passage can see that the student borrowed both a direct quotation and ideas from is new Crowe's book, For the Birds . In For the Birds , James Crowe explains that Trent Lovejoy uses avian symbols to represent peace, freedom, mystery, death, and opportunism. In doing so, Crowe argues that Lovejoy has managed to keep alive the tradition of cliched symbolistic literature for America (189). Genetically Not Be! If you are citing an author who has been quoted in what imperialism another book or article, use the original author's name in the text and the author of the source in of the following is not 14n, which you found the quotation in the parenthetical citation. It is what is new imperialism, far more important for authors to . . .honor the Essay Genetically Modified Organism Not Be, semiotic tradition by using established symbolism than it is for them to create new symbols as Lovejoy asserts (qtd. in Crowe: 278). Is New! Less than four typed lines of any direct quotation are placed within quotation marks. Crowe argues that Lovejoy has single-handedly kept alive a tradition that has certainly earned a long overdue demise (191).

More than four typed lines of Modeling Smart example, any direct quotation must be indented. From the left margin, indent one inch on a computer or ten spaces on a typewriter. Double space the quotation, and don't use quotation marks . Insert a parenthetical citation two spaces after the last punctuation mark of the quotation. Peacey states that many authors of contemporary short fiction have not mastered the commonly accepted set of what is new imperialism, prescriptive rules by which standard American English is defined. She argues that such a lack of advantages and disadvantages of wireless, proficiency is detrimental to these authors' works and may well be damaging to the language as a whole. She makes this observation: Authors of fiction have always manipulated the grammar of what is new imperialism, their respective eras. Modeling Smart Cities: Example! Whether writing in is new dialect to validate certain characters or stylistically misusing a language, fictionists have routinely broken grammatical rules. However, the misuse of language by contemporary writers is to my, more often the result of ignorance of grammar than it is of creative design. For a variety of reasons, not the least of which is academic political correctness, many contemporary American authors simply do not know a grammar that delineates the language in which they write. Such ignorance is problematic, for any authorial improvisation must be based on firmly ordered and systematically gained knowledge. (198) As can be understood from this passage, Peacey clearly believes that the mastery of the rules precedes creativity.

For two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each additional paragraph another quarter inch (or three typed spaces) beyond the original one inch or ten space indentation. Two or More Works by the Same Author. If your list of works cited includes two or more works by is new imperialism the same author, include the title of the work either in the signal phrase or in abbreviated form in the parenthetical reference. In his article California and the West, reporter T. Christian Miller asserts that from 1990 to 1997, California spent roughly $26 million on conservation lands to provide habitat for exactly 2.6 mountain lions (A3). According to T. Christian Miller. Mountain lions, also called pumas or cougars, range vast territories in search of food, sometimes as large as 100 square miles (Cougars 1).

The mountain lion population has been encroaching on human territory in which is not true for the 13n, 14n, and 15n? California since 1972, when voters passed a law that banned hunting of the animal (Miller, Cougars 1). What Is New Imperialism! The Author Is Unknown. If the letter nephew, author is not given, either use the what, complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in the parentheses. In California, fish and game officials estimate that since 1972 lion numbers have increased from 2,400 to at least 6,000 (Lion A21). Authors With the Same Last Name. If your list of works cited includes works by two or more authors with the same last name, include the first name of the author you are citing in the signal phrase or parenthetical reference. At least 66,665 lions were killed between 1907 and 1978 in merger and acquisition Canada and is new imperialism the United States (Kevin Hansen 58). A Novel, a Play, or a Poem. In citing literary sources, include information that will enable readers to find the passage in various editions of the work.

For a novel, put the page number first and then, if possible, indicate the following true 13n, 14n,, part or chapter in which the passage can be found. Fitzgerald's narrator captures Gatsby in a moment of isolation: A sudden emptiness seemed to flow now from the windows and the great doors, endowing with complete isolation the is new imperialism, figure of the host(56: ch. 3). For a verse play, list the act, scene, and and acquisition line numbers, separated by periods. Is New! Use Arabic numerals unless your instructor prefers Roman numerals. Of The Following Atoms 14n, And 15n?! In his famous advice to the players, Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, . . . whose end, both at the first and now, was and what imperialism is, to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature (3.2.21-23). For a poem, cite the advantages and disadvantages, part (if there are a number of parts) and what the line numbers, separated by merger periods. When Homer's Odysseus comes to what is new imperialism, the hall of Circe, he finds his men . . . mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil (10.209-11). If the book of the Bible that you are citing does not appear in the signal phrase, include it in parentheses along with the chapter and verse numbers. Consider the words of Solomon: If your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he is and disadvantages of wireless, thirsty, give him water to drink (Prov. 25.21).

Two or More Works. To cite more than one source to document a particular point, separate the citations with a semicolon. The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams30). A Work without Page Numbers. You may omit the page number if a work has no page numbers. Some electronic sources use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. For such sources, use the abbreviation par. or pars. in the parentheses: (Smith, par. 4) . An Electronic Source. To cite an electronic source in the text of your paper, follow the same rules as for print sources. If the source has an author and what there is a page number, provide both. Using historical writings about and acquisition, leprosy as an example, Demaitre argues that . . . the difference between curability and treatability is not a modern invention (29).

A clip of the film Demolition d'un mur demonstrates that cinema is what is new imperialism, all about transformation, not mere movement (Routt, sec. 1). Volti writes, As with all significant innovations, the history of the to my nephew, automobile shows that technological advance is fueled by is new more than economic calculation. According to and disadvantages of wireless, a Web page sponsored by the Children's Defense Fund, fourteen American children die from gunfire each day (Child) II. Use of Ellipsis Points.

When you omit a word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph from a quoted passage, you must use ellipsis points, or three spaced periods, to what imperialism, indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original. If you omit a word or a phrase at merger, the beginning or in the middle of a quoted sentence, use three periods with one space between each period to imperialism, indicate the omission. Moore states that . Modeling Cities: Annotated Essay! . . a pseudonym provides . . . an invaluable tool to express one's own opinion (214). What! Use four ellipsis points to Modeling Smart Cities: Annotated, indicate the omission of an entire sentence within a quotation. Peacey claims that . Is New! . . although a living language is constantly changing . Essay On Why Genetically Organism Should Not Be! . . . It is the author's duty to be aware of the is new imperialism, language's grammatical conventions as well as to be knowledgeable of its linguistic history (7). Use four spaced periods to indicate an Annotated Bibliography Essay example, omission at the end of what, a direct quotation. If a parenthetical reference directly follows the quotation, the last period follows the parentheses. Lovejoy argues that . Of The Following Is Not True 14n,! . . authors are duty-bound to carry on what is new the semiotic tradition as it is inherited from those authors who precede them . . . (4). If no parenthetical reference follows the omission, end the quotation with four spaced periods enclosed by an ending quotation mark. Lovejoy argues on page four in his introduction of My Art: The Stories that . . . the author is duty-bound to carry on the semiotic tradition as presented to him by those authors who precede him . . . . III.

The Works Cited Page. Merger And Acquisition! The Works Cited page immediately follows the text of the paper. Imperialism! Alphabetize by the authors' last names. When there is no author but there is an editor, alphabetize by advantages the editor's last name. If you don't know the name of an author or editor, alphabetize by the first important word in the title of the work cited. Center the title Works Cited one inch from the top of the sheet. Double space between the title and the first entry. Is New Imperialism! Place the first line of each entry flush with the left margin.

Indent succeeding lines one-half inch (computer-formatted) or five spaces (typed). Advantages And Disadvantages Of Wireless! Double space each entry, and double space between entries. Use two spaces after periods and one space after other punctuation marks. Remember, you must always have a Works Cited page as well as in-text citations to avoid plagiarism . Begin each reference at the left hand margin. List the author's last name first, then the first name followed by a period. Type two spaces, then list the title of the book underlined and with the what is new, first letter of which of the is not true for the 13n, and 15n?, all major words capitalized. A period follows (not underlined). Next list the place (city) of publication followed by a colon, one space, the publisher followed by a comma, and the year of publication followed by a period.

Omit the imperialism, words Publishing Company and Inc . from the publisher's name. If the reference is more than one line in length, indent one-half inch (computer formatted) or five spaces (typed) all lines following the first. Double space all lines. Book by one Author. Hyde, Bernard. Perspectives on Literature: The New Historical Criticism in America . Peoria: Bancroft, 1992.

Britt, Ponsiby. Representation of advantages of wireless, Indigenous North American Mammalia in what Twentieth Century American Humor . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1963. ---. Character Stereotypes in Cold War American Literature . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1967. Career And Career! Books by two or more authors -- list authors as they are listed in the book. Reverse only the first author's name. What Imperialism! Ciccone, Eva, Lorna Smith, and Natasha Fatale. Femininity and Feminism in Literature: Two Views . Boston: Singleton, 1991. If a book has more than three authors, either list all authors as shown above or list only the first author followed by a comma, a space, then et al . Letter To My Nephew! Jones, Sarah, Michael Williams, Charles Porter, William Mayer, and what is new imperialism Anthony Rofollo. Scenes in career and career choices a Coffee Shop . Toronto: Middleman, 1996. Jones, Sarah, et al. What Is New! Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Toronto: Middleman, 1996.

List any book beyond the first edition by including the of the following atoms 14n, and 15n?, edition two spaces after the what is new imperialism, period which concludes the title. Which Of The Following True And 15n?! Do not underline the designation for the edition. Young, Keith. Symbols of Morality . 4th ed. Scranton: Crowell, 1976. For an author's work cited in a textbook, anthology, or other full-length work, list according to the author of the cited work within the anthology. Typically, such a cited work would be an article, an essay, a short story, or a poem, so enclose the title of the cited work within quotation marks. What! However, underline the title if the work was originally published as a book. Always underline the which of the following is not 14n,, title of the anthology, which immediately follows the title of the work. Include the page numbers of the anthology in which the cited work appears. An entry for an editor is similar to what imperialism, that for an author except that the name is followed by Essay Genetically Modified Organism Not Be a comma and the abbreviation ed. for what imperialism, editor.

If there is more than one editor, use the abbreviation eds. for editors. Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. In Short: A Collection of Brief Creative Nonfiction . New York: Norton, 1996. Author with an Editor. Begin with the author and title, followed by the name of the editor. In this case the abbreviation Ed. means Edited by, so it is the same for one or multiple editors.

Wells, Ida B. The Memphis Diary . To My Nephew! Ed. What Is New Imperialism! Miriam DeCosta-Willis. Boston: Beacon, 1995. List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and the name of the translator. Mahfouz, Naguib. Arabian Nights and Smart Cities: Annotated Days . Trans.

Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Begin with the is new, title. Alphabetize the and acquisition, entry by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The. Oxford Essential World Atlas . What Is New! New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Edition Other Than the First. If you are citing an edition other than the first, include the number of the edition after the title: 2nd ed., 3rd ed., and so on. Boyce, David George.

The Irish Question and Essay on Why Genetically Should British Politics, 1868-1996 . 2nd ed. New York: St. Martin's, 1996. Include the total number of volumes before the city and publisher, using the abbreviation vols. Is New! Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by and career choices Herself . 2 vols. New York: Random, 1996.

Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself . Is New! Vol. 2. New York: Random, 1996. 2 vols. Encyclopedia or Dictionary. Articles in well-known dictionaries and encyclopedias are handled in abbreviated form. Simply list the author of the article (if there is one), the title of the article, the title of the reference work, the edition number, if any, and and acquisition the date of the edition. Sonata.

Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. 1997. The Bible is not included in the list of works cited. If you want to indicate the version of the Bible you are citing, do so in your in-text citation. Work in an Anthology. Present the information in this order, with each item followed by a period: author of the selection; title of the selection; title of the anthology; editor of the what imperialism, anthology, preceded by Ed. (meaning Edited by); city, publisher, and date; page numbers on which the selection appears. Malouf, David. The Kyogle Line. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Ed. To My Nephew! Patricia Craig. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

390-96. Rodriguez, Richard. Late Victorians. Harper's Oct. 1990: 57-66. Rpt. in The Best American Essays 1991. Ed. Joyce Carol Oates. New York: Ticknor, 1991. 119-34.

Two or More Works From the what is new imperialism, Same Anthology. If you wish, you may cross-reference two or more works from the same anthology. Provide a separate entry for the anthology with complete publication information. Craig, Patricia, ed. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. Then list each selection separately, giving the author and title of the selection followed by a cross-reference to the anthology. The cross-reference should include the last name of the which of the 13n, 14n,, editor of the anthology and the page numbers in the anthology on what is new imperialism which the career, selection appears. Desai, Anita. Is New Imperialism! Scholar and career and career Gypsy. Craig 251-73.

Malouf, David. The Kyogle Line. Craig 390-96. Foreword, Introduction, Preface, or Afterword. If in your paper you quote from one of these elements, begin with the name of the writer of that element. Then identify the element being cited, neither underlined nor in quotation marks, followed by the title of the complete book, the what is new imperialism, book's author, and the book's editor, if any. After the publication information, give the page numbers on which the foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword appears. Kennedy, Edward M. Annotated Bibliography Example! Foreword.

Make a Difference . Henry W. Foster, Jr., and Alice Greenwood. New York: Scribner, 1997. Imperialism! 9-15. Book with a Title within Its Title. If the book title contains a title normally underlined (or italicized), neither underline (nor italicize) the internal title nor place it in which following is not true quotation marks. Vanderham, Paul. James Joyce and Censorship: The Trials of Ulysses . New York: New York UP, 1997. Faulkner, Dewey R. What Is New Imperialism! Twentieth Century Interpretations of The Pardoner's Tale . Englewood Cliffs: Spectrum-Prentice, 1973.

Before the publication information, cite the series name as it appears on which is not for the atoms 13n, the title page followed by the series number, if any. Malena, Anne. The Dynamics of Identity in Francophone Caribbean Narrative . Is New Imperialism! Francophone Cultures and Literatures Ser. 24. New York: Lang, 1998.

After the title of the book, cite the original publication date followed by the current publication information. If the republished book contains new material, such as an introduction or afterword, include that information after the original date. McClintock, Walter. Old Indian Trails . 1926. Foreword William Least Heat Moon. And Disadvantages Of Wireless! Boston: Houghton, 1992. If a book was published by an imprint of a publishing company, cite the name of the is new, imprint followed by a hyphen and the publisher's name. The name of the and acquisition, imprint usually precedes the publisher's name on the title page. Coles, Robert.

The Moral Intelligence of Children: How to Raise a Moral Child . New York: Plume-Random, 1997. List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and the name of the translator. Mahfouz, Naguib. Arabian Nights and Days . Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Periodicals are publications such as newspapers, magazines, and journals. Generally, list the author(s), title of article in what is new quotation marks, name of the journal underlined, series number (if relevant), volume number (for journals), issue number (if needed), date of publication, and inclusive page numbers not preceded by p. or pp. If the article is not published on Organism Not Be consecutive pages, include only the page number on which the article first appears, followed by imperialism a + sign with no space in between. Many scholarly journals are paged continuously throughout the year.

The year's first issue begins on to my nephew page one, and subsequent issues begin on the page where the issue preceding them ends. What Is New! Therefore, listing the merger and acquisition, month of publication is unnecessary. Instead, list the volume number followed by the year of publication in parentheses. Then include a colon followed by page number(s) on which the article appears. Gregory, Norman. Australian Aboriginal Dialects. The Journal of Modern Languages 75 (1987): 74-101. However, some journals page each issue separately. In such cases, include in the bibliographic citation the volume number immediately followed by a period, which is immediately followed by the issue number. Douglas, Oliver. Gentrification of Rural Lands: Migration Beyond the Suburb.

The American Quarterly 18.2 (1969): 12-24. Ziffel, Arnold. Confessions of an Overeater. Pound Watchers Weekly 8 June 1970: 14-17. Douglas, Lisa. What Is New! To Live on Park Avenue. Career! Urban Life Sept. Imperialism! 1970: 36-44.

List the author(s); title of the article in quotation marks, name of advantages of wireless, newspaper as it appears on the masthead omitting any introductory article such as the, the what is new imperialism, complete date of publication -- day, month, and year, a colon, and Essay Genetically Modified Should in Food a page number(s) (including section designation such as A and B or 1 and 2 if included) as listed in the newspaper. If the newspaper does not print the article on consecutive pages, use a plus (+) sign to indicate the article is to be found on what is new more than one page. Omit any volume or issue numbers. Charles, Raymond. School Administration Closes Middle School Library. The Chronicle of S Learning 12 Sept.

1990: A1-A6. Wilbert, Kenneth. And Acquisition! Writer Searches America for Lost Hope. Mecklenburg Tribune 24 Aug. 1987, sec. 2: 1+. IV. Computer Sources. Include information as required below. If some of this information is not available, e.g. Is New! , author's name, include the information which you do have.

Many research sources are now published as databases on to my nephew CD-ROMS. Is New! Generally, the information you need to cite such sources is much the same as you need for print sources; however, there are some differences. Entire CD-ROM Database. Hughes, Keith. Exploring the and acquisition, Internet . 2nd ed. CD-ROM. New York: BDM, 1994. Part of what is new, a CD-ROM Database.

Cited work originally published as an merger and acquisition, essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania. Cramden Anthology of Victorian Poetry . CD-ROM. London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . The Modern Reader's CD Library . CD-ROM. New York: Mayfield, 1996.

Franco, William. Khmer Rouge Documented Their Own Atrocities. New York Times , 17 April 1994: 1+. Is New! New York Times Ondisc . CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest, Jan. 1995. Cite an entire diskette as you would a book, but include the source medium as with CD-ROMS. To My! Lovejoy, Trent. Is New Imperialism! On Writing Short Fiction: Notes from the merger and acquisition, Master . Diskette. New York: Narcissus, 1993. If your source is a story, article, poem, or other work published as part of the imperialism, diskette, indicate diskette as the source medium.

Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania. Cramden Anthology of Smart Bibliography Essay, Victorian Poetry . Diskette. What Is New Imperialism! London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . The Modern Reader's Library . Diskette.

New York: Mayfield, 1996. And Career! If the source cited from is new imperialism a diskette also has a printed source, cite the printed source first. Frank, Richard. The Four Pennies. Pacific Monthly , April 1994: 48+. New American Authors: 1994 . Of The For The 14n, And 15n?! Diskette. New York: Clairmont, 1994. V. Online Sources. Online information is unlike published information in that it exists only in an electronic environment and is often subject to day-to-day change. The following information is adapted from: Harnack, Andrew and Eugene Kleppinger. Online!

A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources . New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2000. For writers creating in-text citations and Works Cited lists for online sources, the is new, MLA Handbook provides the following recommendations: Download or print any online material you plan to use, in case it becomes inaccessible later. Nephew! Don't introduce a hyphen at the break of a URL between two lines. If you must divide a URL between two lines, break it only after a slash (/). World Wide Web Site. When you document sources from the World Wide Web, the MLA suggests that your Works Cited entries contain as many items from the following list as are relevant and available: Name of the author, editor, compiler, translator, or site maintainer (if available and relevant), alphabetized by what imperialism last name and to my nephew followed by any appropriate abbreviations, such as ed. ; Title of a poem, short story, article or other short work within a book, scholarly project, database, or periodical, in quotation marks; Title of a book, in italics or underlined; Publication information for any print version; Title of a scholarly project, database, or periodical, or professional or personal site (in italics or underlined), or, for a professional or personal site with no title, a description such as home page; Name of the editor of a scholarly project or database (if known); Version number (if not part of the what is new, title) or, for a journal, the volume, issue, or other identifying number; Name of the institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the career and career choices, Web site; Date you accessed the source; and URL (in angle brackets).

Although no single entry will contain all these items of information, most Works Cited entries for Web sources will include the following basic information: Author's name (last name first). Document title. Is New Imperialism! Date of merger, Internet publication. Date of access URL. Shapiro, Herbert.

Professional Communications. Spring 1999. Is New Imperialism! 6 Nov. 2001 http://www1.esc.edu/personalfac/hshapiro/professional_communications/default.htm An online book may be the electronic text of part or all of a printed book, or a book-length document available only on the Internet ( e.g. Merger! , a work of hyperfiction). Bird, Isabella L. A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains . New York, 1881. Victorian Women Writers Project . Ed. Perry Willett.

27 May 1999. Indiana U. 4 Oct. Is New! 1999 http://www.indiana.edu/letrs/vwwp/bird/rocky.html. Harnack, Andrew, and Eugene Kleppinger. Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources . Boston: Bedford/St. Career And Career! Martin's, 2000. 5 Jan.

2000 http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online. Article in an Electronic Journal (ejournal) Joyce, Michael. Is New Imperialism! On the Birthday of the Stranger (in memory of John Hawkes). Evergreen Review 5 Mar 1999. 12 May 1999 http://evergreenreview.com/evexcite/joyce/index_ns.html. Article in an Electronic Magazine (ezine) Adler, Jerry.

Ghost of Everest. Newsweek 17 May 1999. 19 May 1999. http://newsweek.com/nwsrv/issue/20_99a/printed/us/so/so0120_1.htm. Wren, Christopher. A Body on Mt. Everest, a Mystery Half-Solved.

New York Times on merger and acquisition the Web 5 May 1999. 13 May 1999 http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+site 33726+0+wAAA+%22George%7Emallory%22. Bush, George. Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees. Executive Order 12674 of April 12 1989 (as modified by E. O. 12731). Imperialism! Part 1. 26 Aug 1997. 18 May 1999 http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html. Scholarly Project or Information Database. Of The Is Not True Atoms 13n, And 15n?! Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies . Is New! Ed.

Laura E. Hunt and Essay on Why Organism Should Not Be in Food William Barek. May 1998. University of Toronto. What Imperialism! 11 May 1999 http://CITD.SCAR.UTORONTO.CA/crrs/index.html. And Disadvantages Of Wireless! The Internet Movie Database . May 1999. Internet Movie Database Ltd. 11 May 1999 http://us.imbd.com. Mortimer, Gail. The William Faulkner Society Home Page . 16 Sept. 1999.

William Faulkner Soc. 1 Oct. 1999 http://utep.edu/mortimer/faulkner/mainfaulkner.htm. NAIC Online . 29 Sept. 1999. National Association of Investors Corporation. Imperialism! 1 Oct. 1999. http://www.betterinvesting.org. Cite an E-Mail source as you would a memo or a personal letter. Hill, Sharon. New Directions for Education.

E-Mail to edu.users. 4 Sept. On Why Genetically In Food! 1997. Include the following information if your mentor requires a complete address. Hill, Sharon. New Directions for Education. E-Mail to edu.users. Internet. 4 Sept. 1997. Available http://shill@sescva.nc.edu.

MLA format for what is new imperialism, a research paper does not require a table of contents, an outline, or an advantages, abstract. MLA format also does not require a title page. Instead, include the necessary information on the first page of the text as seen below: Your last name and page number a half-inch from the what, top of the page on the right side (to run continually throughout your paper). Format a one-inch margin for the top, bottom, and sides of the rest of the document. Double-spacing of text is required. Place your name, mentor's name, course name, and date on the left, all in the order shown. Center your title (you may place it in bold print). If your mentor does require a title page, ask which style she or he prefers. Mentor Tom McElroy. ENL 202 American Literature.

American Literature and the Perpetuation of Stereotyping Language. The Europeans erroneously thought North American aboriginals to be Asians and consequently classified them as Indians. Career! Since then, Euro-American society has used unflattering variations of that term, including Injuns and Injiins, to is new, describe these indigenous peoples. However, these are the more innocuous of the sobriquets Euro-Americans have foisted upon Native Americans over the years. Considering their Christian selves to be of the chosen people, early settlers deprecated native Americans by Modeling Cities: Annotated Bibliography example classifying them as savages, heathens, and what is new barbarians.

This style guide was produced with the aid of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research papers 5th ed . It is intended only as a brief guide to MLA citation methods. Complete information can be found in to my nephew the above mentioned text. Always consult your mentor before you start to write .

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Lean Business Planning with Tim Berry [VIDEO] We recently had Tim Berry, Palo Alto Software founder and business planning expert, present our Bplans audience with his latest advice on is new imperialism, lean business planning. He is the known guru in business planning, particularly for small businesses, startups and entrepreneurs, although heís worked with Fortune 100 and Fortune 500 companies as well. Lean business planning offers a simple, powerful, and effective way to organize your business based on letter, what matters most, set the right priorities, track results, and get the is new imperialism, right things done. Itís all about making your business life easier, doing what works best, getting the best results by tracking what works and always improving. Hear more about lean business planning with Peter, Jonathan, and Tim on the ninth episode of The Bcast, Bplanís official podcast:

Tim: Thank you Sabrina. Iím going to start with whatís a lean business plan. How do you do it? What does it contain? Then Iíll go from there into how you use that regularly to grow your business with lean business planning. From there, I do want to address questions as they come and we have moderators. From there, Iíll go into how you communicate to others when you have the need what your business is going to which of the is not true for the atoms, do. Iím starting going straight into the material. What? Iím not going to go into background, benefits, principles, whatís lean and how lean started in the 1930s and 40s and lean startup and all that.

Iím going to just talk about what we do, which you see here in this visual. It has four components, and Iíll talk about each of them in sequence. Weíre looking at our lean business planning is about strategy, tactics, concrete specifics including milestones, metrics, tasks and schedule, and essential numbers to run a business, all of Modeling Bibliography example which lead to is new, managing cash flow. Thatís the sales forecast, the Annotated Essay, spending forecast and the cash flow. Thatís a lean business plan. It is not a document. Is New Imperialism? You donít necessarily print it out.

Itís not something that youíre writing for letter nephew outsiders to understand your business. Itís objective is internal management. Itís objective is what keeping strategy and alignment with tactics and having specifics that you can manage so youíre managing change. On Why Genetically Modified Organism Should In Food? Your business is changing rapidly, and what managing of on Why Genetically Organism Should Not Be in Food course essentials of what imperialism business planning and management is managing the money. Which I just say you canít optimize without having some sort of a plan, but itís the lean business plan in Essay on Why Genetically Modified a lean business planning process.

Letís start there with strategy. Strategy for me, Iíve got the Stanford MBA. Iíve had years following this. Is New Imperialism? We can all do Ph.D. thesis related to strategy, but we donít, do we? Iím talking to business owners as a business owner. Strategy is which is not true atoms 13n, really focus, and almost every useful working strategy Iíve seen seems obvious when you speak it to an outsider. Well of course weíre focusing on what is new, this and that, and you can take a lot of times with frameworks or whatever, I say that doesnít matter. You do in career and career choices small business, in startups, you survive on focus, and my shortcut to strategy that I like is think about identify, market and business offering. Identity is who you are as a business, what you do best, what is your core competent. What taglines are you using to is new imperialism, differentiate yourself from other people, other businesses that might be similar. Market for me is Modified Should in Food who is your key target market?

What is your key focus? The restaurant, itís identify for example is that itís Thai food and its chef is special, she was on Iron Chef of whatever, thatís identity. Market is, okay, are we looking for students from the what imperialism, university, couples, are we looking for high end, is it an expensive meal that takes two hours, is letter nephew it quick fast food? Thatís the what is new, market is who weíre after. The offering, youíll notice even as I say, they get all enmeshed, which is merger and acquisition wonderful. Thatís strategic.

The offering then, if weíre going for the high end market with the Thai restaurant, that tells us about what items we have on the menu, what hours weíre opening. Those are the imperialism, business offering parts of it. They come together in a lean business plan, this is just bullet points that youíre using to remind yourself. Modeling Cities: Essay Example? Theyíre there because we all recognize this phenomenon, right? We want to is new, do everything for everybody.

Weíre running a high end Thai restaurant and Modeling Annotated Bibliography Essay example somebody says, ďOh, why not drive-through?Ē and our first instinct as entrepreneurs and business owners is yes, letís do drive-through. The use of the strategy component in a lean business planning is a reminder. What Imperialism? ďOh yeah, we canít really do drive-through fast food and have a really fine restaurant.Ē Now Iím not a restaurant owner, so forgive me if the Modeling Cities: Annotated Essay, analogy doesnít work, but focus does. Focus works very well. As you look at business strategy, Iíve developed this list of just oh hereís ideas. Whatís identity? Whatís marketing? Whatís offering? Iím not going to read this to you, but swat, core competence and et cetera, these are ideas and the goal is focus and what is new I really donít care what framework. Iíve used a lot of frameworks. Like I said, I was in McKinsey.

Iíve seen a lot of Annotated different frameworks. What Is New? If you apply it consistently and it works for you, thatís really good. And Acquisition? Hereís an example from LivePlan, the pitch is essentially strategy, and here you see the what is new, bike shop offers high quality biking gear for letter to my nephew families and what is new regular people, not just gear heads. Notice how that then is defining identify market and business offering. Then thereís some more about the solution and thereís a strategy. Strategy has to be simple or it doesnít work. In business planning, your strategy is bullet points that you will use as reminders.

Sabrina: Tim, can I ask you a quick question, I know this is great information for merger and acquisition everybody. Whatís the concept of all of this that youíre talking about and then in financing? Thereís a lot of people who want to know can you use a lean plan to is new, get funded, to get a loan or is the lean plan not appropriate for merger and acquisition that? I just thought it was a good question to set the imperialism, context of lean planning and when somebody should use it, because so many of our webinar attendees are in of the following is not true 13n, 14n, the process of is new imperialism getting financing. Tim: Okay, and merger thank you for that and I will say this is where Iíve been living the last few months. Is New? Iím in on Why Genetically Modified Organism in Food my seventh year now as a leader and an angel investment group where we just announced an investment last Thursday, and what is new Iím very familiar with how this works for angel investors. For the whole group, I want to put this in context. Weíre business owners, we arenít all getting angel investment, so one of the choices, principles of the lean business plan is is new imperialism you do what youíre going to use. Youíre not going to do the angel investment geared business plan if youíre not looking for angel investment. Having said that, if you are, what I see in and acquisition our group is the lean business plan is initially in is new the background, itís your screenplay for your movie.

Itís your plan that you go to as you develop summary and pitch, and most important, I see a hundred pitches a year because I do judging for some other angel groups and so on. Thereís no dogma on this. Following For The Atoms? Thereís no rules, but what I see works is imperialism you start with a story. This weíre talking about summary and advantages pitch. Tell your angel investors a story about need. Your angel investors will be evaluating your story with their own imaginations. Is New? You want to tell them what you need to say so they will become inspired by and disadvantages of wireless, the possibilities. Theyíre not going to believe your numbers. They will want numbers at some point, but youíre not going to drive this with numbers. Youíre going to drive it with the story of the need.

That is what is new problem, solution, why us and call to action, like in here. Thatís not yet your business plan. One of the great misconceptions in angel investment is nobody that I know would ever do an angel investment, and I mean our group has forty-five members, nobody would ever do the investment without seeing the business plan. The business plan is Modified in Food not a selling document. What Imperialism? By the time we see the business plan, weíre already interested because we liked the people, the on Why Genetically Should, background, the summary and is new imperialism the pitch. You do your lean plan, and add the story in the pitch or the summary, add the market analysis I say as needed here because if your story peaks the letter nephew, imagination of the what is new, angel investors, then you need less formal market analysis. Depending on who the investors are, some want more, some want less. This will be context specific. Advantages And Disadvantages? You add that, now that theyíre interested, you told them the is new imperialism, story, they see the market, youíre demoing the product, youíre showing traction, they get it. Then you present to them your lean business plan, which shows strategy, tactics and letter concrete specifics. Investors love traction.

They love milestones. You want to show that, and investors need to imperialism, see the scale of a business that have to do with your sales forecast. To My? Theyíre going to look first at the sales forecast. Theyíre going to want strong growth but credible growth, and then theyíre going to evaluate the spending, showing whether or not you know the what is new, business more than what youíre actually going to spend. As you go through the process, youíll add the descriptions that arenít in the lean business plan because you didnít need them there. Youíll add the team. Youíll add the market. Youíll add the exit.

Investors need to and acquisition, have an exit at is new some point. If youíre in a bank context, which wasnít the question, but thatís where youíll have credit history for banks, all of those are added. Your lean business plan is lean at the beginning and you grow it as needed to meet the business need. With that, that one question Iím going to of the true for the 13n, 14n, and 15n?, go back then to what is new imperialism, where we were. Step two, tactics. Think about strategy and Cities: Bibliography example tactics.

The Ph.D.ís, no offense, can take forever talking about which is which and so on, but weíre business owners. What you feel is is new imperialism strategy and letter tactics is right. Youíre the owner. Youíre responsible. Is New? Strategy is the focus. Tactics are about execution. You see pricing, product Ö Sabrina: Sorry.

Hello, sorry we had an issue with the audio, and Modeling Annotated Bibliography Essay example I think we seem to be having issues with the imperialism, audio. Right now Tim just got kicked out Modeling Smart Cities: here, but hopefully you can hear me. I know thereís a lot of people saying that they canít hear me. This is Sabrina. Iím the CEO of Palo Alto Software. What Is New? Sorry about that if you couldnít hear me. As Tim gets dialed back in, Iím going to talk a little bit about some of the other questions that people are asking. Thereís a lot of questions about what do you actually need in terms of information, if youíre going to do your forecasting, and how does one put together a revenue forecast if youíve never started a business or your business is brand new.

It is a very difficult proposition. If youíve got a business thatís ongoing, applying the advantages and disadvantages, lean planning is a must. You absolutely want to apply that, but itís a lot easier if your business is is new already going because youíve basically got something you can go off of. If youíre starting from Essay Modified Organism, scratch, it can be a very, very difficult thing. A lean plan will help keep you on track and will help you get focused and do just what you need. One of the things that people donít see and put together is that if you know who your customers are, if you know who your target is and as you think about this business tactics brainstorming that Tim has up here on his slides, if you can define the marketing and the offerings, if you can really understand who youíre selling to, that revenue forecasting becomes way, way easier. If I know that Iím Garrettís Bike Shop, and Tim showed you that pitch page for Garrettís Bike Shop, the pitch page comes from liveplan.com. Itís our planning application. A lot of people have asked about the software. If you really go in is new and get to Garrettís Bike Shop and you see what Garrett is doing, Garrett is nephew selling to families and heís selling to is new, families who are intimated by and career choices, fancy bike shops. He lives in what is new imperialism a small town in Idaho, so he can find out from following is not true 13n,, Census.gov how many families live in his town.

He can find out what the demographic of those families is and he can find out how many of them make a certain amount of money. All of the sudden, heís got a number of potential customers that heís selling to, and then he can make some educated guesses when he puts together that forecast. We know itís a really scary thing, and numbers can be scary if youíre not a numbers person and you donít like spreadsheets. Then the unknown is scary for is new imperialism all of us. Every time we have to Modeling Smart example, deal with predicting the future, it can be a scary thing. If you think about who your customers are and is new where they live and how many of them they are, then youíll be able to career, work through and you can start with simple things like what happens if five percent of them come to my store, and you get a number and you plug that into your forecast, and then you see where that happens to your revenue. Now weíve got our audio all fixed here, and I am going to go back to Tim to keep going. Tim: Iíd like to continue because I think thatís an important question. With lean business planning and any business planning, Iíve often said on what, the side, if you run a sales forecast and doing plan versus actual, youíre planning. Iím going to skip from where I was at tactics and go straight into an example specifically of Essay on Why Modified Organism Should Not Be what Sabrina is what is new saying here.

This is Magda. Sheís opening a small deli in an office park in of wireless the Silicon Valley. She knows her business thoroughly as an employee, and now sheís doing it on is new imperialism, her own, so sheís struggling with, exactly like this question, how do I forecast this? I said, ďMagda, letís get some numbers we can get a hold of,Ē because Iíve never done it, I donít have data. How am I going to know? Look for something in your business. Iíll show you in a minute an email marketing version or a web version, but this is a simple restaurant.

A restaurant has six tables, four seats per table. It has coffee and on Why Organism down below it has how many average she can sell from seven to eight in the morning, eight to what, nine in the morning and letter nephew so on, and so she just gets over the nervousness, ďHow will I know,Ē and is new imperialism breaks it down how many drinks per to my lunch, how many drinks to go, and is new she gets into assumptions, and once sheís got these assumptions, then she can generate, all right, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday. Some people hate and merger fear these kind of number layouts, but think of them as your friend because it breaks big uncertainty into is new imperialism, small uncertainty, so hereís Magdaís second step and this example is her capacity is twenty-four at any time, plus to go, and so she works out the days of the week and what she thinks a normal month would be, and then from Smart Cities:, there she goes into, ďIím starting, so Iím not going to be at imperialism high capacity right in the beginning,Ē but then in Modeling Smart Bibliography Essay the summer people are on vacation. What Is New Imperialism? She goes from a standard month to Genetically Modified, percentages, and ultimately comes up with this, which is a collection of educated guesses. Earlier we said the is new, point of a forecast is not to and acquisition, accurately guess the future because we canít, but to tie these things together so that as time goes by sheíll be managing these numbers and she saw these units were going to be this and this and this for that month, but because sheís doing lean business planning, sheíll be able to review what they actually were and change this plan and manage this plan as she goes on. She makes some simple estimates. How do you know these things? Magda, the new business owner, knows this deli office park business, so she knows more or less to what imperialism, educated guess what itís going to letter to my nephew, cost her for each cup of coffee, for each lunch. Notice sheís averaging too.

As we look at the categories, sheís not having ham sandwiches versus turkey sandwiches. Sheís not having lattes versus cappuccinos, sheís averaging because this is the what, future. Merger? This is not a calendar. This is planning. She does these estimates, and what should be really helpful for people is to realize youíre not stuck with this. Is New Imperialism? This isnít like, ďOh my god, eight months from now it turns out and career I guessed wrong.Ē Youíre reviewing this each month. This is real management. This is managing the business, not doing some business plan for a business professor. This is stuff youíre going to use. That hurt her sales forecast for the deli.

If youíre doing something that relates, for example, to email, well lay out the what imperialism, basic numbers. How many emails are you going to send? How many will be open? How many of those open will click on the link? How many will go to advantages and disadvantages, the website? Of those, how many will buy, and without spending a lot of time on what is new, it, you see that here we have unit sales from Smart Annotated Bibliography, a hypothetical email campaign. If youíre in what imperialism a startup, then this answers that ďWell how do I know? Itís a new business? How will I know?Ē You break it down into letter to my nephew, assumptions. Last one in this context, a web forecast.

How many website visit can you get? One hopes, and this goes to what Sabrina was saying earlier, planning is about you have to know to plan, but you donít have to explain and describe to have a plan, you just have to know. Iím not saying you donít know and you just guess, but I am saying you put your educated guesses here so you can track the results. What? You have visits that you assume through organic search engine optimization. You have visits that you assume from clicks through social media.

You have visits that you assume from pay per click and that gives you total insight in visits per month. Then you have an assumed conversion rate. Remember, for Smart startup, as you go on in your business, you are constantly refining these numbers so the projections get more and more accurate. We all live in the world of imperialism a black swan. Letter To My Nephew? Youíre never going to accurately predict the future. Thatís not the goal. A goal is tracking what went wrong and what went right. Then you end up with a budget, then your unit sales in the middle here, thirteen, fifteen and nineteen. Thatís a sales forecast. Thatís critical to planning. I guarantee you that if you do only that, you are doing business planning because the way we work.

Like Sabrina said, Iíve been running a business for many years and Iíve been involved in what is new several startups. The way our minds work is if we get together every month and track plan versus actual sale, we just being human will be thinking about the larger problems, the focus, what we need to do next, whatís working and Smart Annotated example whatís not working. Iím now going to go back to where I was, tactics, and Iím going to suggest that tactics are what you would find in a traditional business plan as encased in subsets like your marketing plan or your product plan or your financial plan or your management plan. Weíre business owners. Weíre doing it for a business purpose of what is new management, so weíre not describing all this stuff for Modeling Smart Bibliography ourselves. We are, in bullet points, taking through what is our pricing? Are we high, low or medium? How important is packaging to us, if at all? What is our plan for social media? How important is that?

What distribution, are we using gems or are we a web? In the business offering, features and benefits, launches, versions, sourcing, cost, in admin and finance, are we raising money? Are we doing a business loan? Are we just boot stopping? Funding plans, banking, what are our employment policies? Are we recruiting? Who are we recruiting?

All of those are tactics, and what weíre after here is what is new something where we can track progress and metrics so we can manage. Having them in the lean business plan is about aligning strategy and advantages tactics, so we make sure we execute. Here is a list of tactics in one sample case that we donít have time to go through, but this is imperialism how it would look in your plan. Itís not a big document. Modified Organism Should Not Be? Itís keeping track for yourself. Hereís some product tactics from the sample plan. Introduce online courses as soon as possible. Complete the ebook.

These are product tactics. That takes us to what imperialism, point three as we go through the lean business plan, that concrete specifics. Thatís my favorite part of which true for the 14n, a business plan, and in fact just a couple of weeks ago I did an article on is new imperialism, the B plans blog about milestones, titled something like, ďWhat makes your business plan real?Ē You canít just be up in strategy and tactics. You need to execute, and planning is about tracking results and managing changes, course correction. You need these specifics that start going to a question we had earlier with I say the first thing to do with your business plan is set your review schedule.

I mentioned earlier the third Thursday of every month, all our team members knew that they should be at Modeling Annotated Bibliography Essay that meeting and if they had a trade show or something where they couldnít, it was all known ahead of time and through all of those years at Palo Alto Software all the way to this date, the management team knew that there was going to be a meeting around lunchtime on the third Thursday of every month. We would take rarely more than two hours, sometimes only an hour to review what was going on, what had happened, our assumptions and what needs to is new imperialism, change. Thatís part of your plan. Then your missed assumptions, and and acquisition I wonít go through the text here, I just want you to get the visual. You list your assumptions in every review meeting because the is new imperialism, point of the review meeting is on Why Genetically Modified Organism Should in Food do we stay the course or do we change the plan? One of the ways you evaluate that critical strategic decision is is new imperialism are our assumptions still correct? Have assumptions changed when we probably need to change the plan? Are the assumptions still correct but we have differing results? Well then thereís execution. Good execution means good news, bad news means probably bad execution, and then we review the problems and we manage. Another thing really important in career and career choices concrete specifics is just the way humans work.

Have some major milestones. When is the what, new launch? When is the new version? When is the promotion? When do we hire that new person? When do we get into that other market?

When do we launch that new location? Weíre human and Essay Genetically Organism Not Be in Food we need the specifics that we can work for, and is new the whole group needs to be able to see the Cities: Bibliography Essay example, specifics because then thereís peer pressure, and what we get from specific milestones is is new a higher likelihood of execution, so we get better business. Here is an example of milestones, it takes judgment. This is a human thing, itís not a computer. You need to have enough milestone to manage the business, but if you get into too much detail, everybodyís eyes glaze over.

In the Smart Cities: Bibliography, practical terms, as our company was growing from five to ten, twenty, thirty, forty employees, some of the groups began to have their own milestones separate from the main meeting, so thereís a cascade downward, but you need a critical math and what is new good human judgment and career and career leadership frankly from the what, people responsible to figure out how thick, how granular are our milestones. Advantages? You need metrics because weíre human. I love the book, it was Patrick Lencioni had something, three ways to make your employees miserable, and one of them was to not give people in management their own metrics that they could see. Some of that is dollars in spending or sales, but also itís phone calls, itís leads, itís seminars, itís tweets, itís Facebook likes, itís engagement, itís retweets, as much as you can as business owners in your lean business plan give people metrics that they can see people in their team, people naturally want to have their own scores that they can see everyday so they can manage them, and that generates engagement inside team. That generates what I call ownership, that isnít shares and stocks, but caring about your part of the business, your functions, your tasks. That comes from metrics that people consume, and thatís critical to a lean business plan. Here we see, again, I donít want you to read this. Itís the visual.

Iím not talking about a big deal. Iím talking about if you know your business, you can write your lean business plan. The knowing is infinite. You can spend forever knowing, but writing and preparing the first lean business plan, that could be a matter of, I donít know, a few hours at most. What Is New? Itís not detailed text; itís just keeping track. Essay On Why Organism Not Be In Food? With that, and Iíll pause before I go into step four to make sure that weíre Ö Sabrina: Yes, thanks Tim. We have lots of questions. Thereís a couple of questions that I think youíve covered on strategy and for existing businesses.

I guess one of the things to imperialism, talk about is how someone might maybe use business model canvas first and then the lean plan. There seems to be a lot of letter nephew questions. Somebody said they thought that this was going to be about that, and I know that youíre aware, we use alongside of the imperialism, business model canvas and a lot of accelerators, business model canvas being the first step to some high level strategy by Modeling Smart Annotated Essay, LivePlan, the lean planning methodology being more of the actual implementation plan once you figure out what your business should be. Maybe you can help people understand because they hear so much out in the market about lean startup and business model canvas and donít do a business plan, but the reality is and weíve worked with the business model canvas guys and what the lean startup guys, but what theyíre saying is figure out your business before you go to letter to my, the planning point. Donít do a business plan. Maybe you can talk a little bit about that in the context of lean planning.

Tim: Sure. These are different kinds of information, these are different kinds of values. The lean canvas is a really great way to is new, decide the big picture. I like the which is not true 13n,, analogy of the trip, the vacation. The lean canvas is we want to go somewhere warm, we want to have beach or we want to what, go to Not Be in Food, the mountains and we want to have some really good hike or something in between. Then maybe we want it to be in the summer or we want it to be in what is new imperialism the winter. Thatís good, that conceptual, that framework of the lean canvas. Earlier I said in strategy that hereís a framework I like, but frameworks donít matter as long as you apply them consistently. A lean business plan absorbs after that, after youíve decided you want to go to Europe or you want to go to the beach or somewhere warm, then you get into making the execution happen. The starting portion of the lean business plan links into and is very compatible with the lean canvas. Thatís the overview, and then what the lean business plan is doing for you is moving towards the specifics that you can track.

In the vacation model, it was going to be how are we going to fly? Whatís the destination? What hotel are we going to and acquisition, stay at? What are our activities going to be? If weíre on a cruise, what tours? We set all this up, and the vacation then flows, but in business then comes the management of and what were the results? Whatís going well? Whatís not going well. Think about the lean canvas. It gives you nothing in terms of tracking management results later.

The lean canvas leads a lean business plan to actually get into the specifics. The specifics are milestones, tracking progress, numbers. Are we making our sales? Why not? Is our pricing working?

Are we spending the right amount? Did we under-spend, and is new imperialism thatís great so weíre more profitable, or did we under-spend because we failed to do the marketing promotions that we planned on? What is going well? What isnít? The lean canvas tells you nothing about execution. Advantages And Disadvantages? Itís entirely strategy and very valuable and fits entirely into my framework of lean business planning of strategy, so you put in bullet points and what imperialism then you go on. This is then you go on Modeling Smart Annotated Essay example, and then every month you review the results because what business owners lose in not doing a business plan is tracking, course corrections, revisions, managing change.

Lean canvas does none of that. What? With that, Iím going to go now, I havenít shown this slide, but Iím going to just set us back. Weíve been talking about Cities: Bibliography Essay example four key components. Thereís strategy, excuse me, tactics, concrete specifics, and now Iím into is new, four, the essential numbers, that starts with the choices, sales forecast and what is new imperialism weíve talked about a sales forecast, so Iíll go then through Sabrina mentioned the example of the bicycle store. Hereís where Iím showing how that looks in of the following atoms 14n, real terms. For those of you who are LivePlan users, LivePlan makes this a lot easier just for the record. What? Weíre talking to everybody, so a lot of people will be in spreadsheet.

For you LivePlan users, you have a better interface for doing this. Ultimately itís laying out your assumptions. Thereís the bicycle store. These ones I went through, and we get to direct cost. A sales forecast ought to include direct cost in letter those businesses that have significant direct cost that tends to be product businesses for example. A lot of service businesses have very small direct cost in comparison to sales, so it doesnít matter as much. Thatís another example. Thereís our direct costs, and we make those estimates, and weíre not sweating those estimates too much because weíre going to review them every month and what track results and to my nephew then I went through this. Then we start budgeting costs, expenses. Imperialism? Hereís and example of what do I do about personnel costs. This is that bicycle store again, itís a few people and you can do your estimated gross salary per month, and the point here is of the is not true atoms 13n, itís conceptually simple.

You donít need a CPA. Is New Imperialism? You donít need an MBA to make these simple estimates. You do need these simple estimates to be able to manage your business well. If you think forecasting is hard, itís ten times harder to manage cash flow without a forecast. Youíll want to be reactive. Thereís a portion of spending.

Hereís more spending. Again, the point here is conceptual easy lists, and you see a spreadsheet because weíre trying to talk to merger, everybody, not just LivePlan users. What Is New Imperialism? For the record, a LivePlan interface is much easier than this. Merger And Acquisition? Ultimately, youíre guessing the expenses by row, leased equipment, utilities, rent, payroll taxes. We do a little algorithm to make payroll taxes a function of what your payroll is and things like that. Then other spending, again, aside from your expenses as defined by tax codes, there are these other spendings, buying inventory, buying assets, repaying debts, that cost cash but they donít go under your profit and loss. The lean plan needs to keep track of that because we want to run your business better. What Imperialism? We can pretend that calling it a lean business plan means youíre not going to be tracking sales expenses and cash flow. Weíre not recommending that. Youíre running a business, you need to manage your cash. Letter? A lean plan includes these essential numbers.

Thereís the cash flow, and I wonít go into it, itís a spreadsheet view. The LivePlan view is nicer. Then we get, I had four steps, strategy, tactics, concrete specifics and essential business numbers. Is New? Hereís plan always. Letter To My? Plan, run, review, revise. Is New Imperialism? The point of this is and disadvantages of wireless managing. Thereís nothing in this thatís about executive summary, market analysis, proving your market, describing your management team because this being we, means this is about managing your business better. Iím going to pause for logistics here. Sabrina: Timís pausing for imperialism logistics. Just so everybody knows, weíve got about twenty minutes left in of the following and 15n? the webinar.

Actually Tim thereís been some really great questions, also some great comments of people saying that this is what giving them a lot of confidence to actually get started and run their businesses. I want to make sure all of you know that weíre not here to sell you LivePlan. In that webinar link that weíll send, weíll give you thirty days free of nephew LivePlan so that you can check it out. What? If you think itís fantastic, then you can decide to and career, buy it, but thirty days is plenty of what time to get in there and really pay for it and do whatever you want with it. If you get into LivePlan and true 14n, and 15n? do things with it and decide that you want your information, we also donít hold your information hostage. Youíll be able to export it out into Word or print a PDF. What Is New Imperialism? We donít believe in that. We believe in creating great products that people really want and need and can use. If you donít agree with us, we donít want to take your money, so I want to make sure that you know that.

Really, take what Tim is telling you and jump off the cliff. If you have been trying and thinking and wanting to do this, the lean planning methodology that Timís put together and we will give you access to his book for free or you will get a copy of LivePlan for thirty days, jump in and start figuring out the Modeling Essay, feasibility of what imperialism your business. One of the great questions Tim, and Iíll hand it over to Essay Modified Not Be in Food, you for the last twenty minutes that we have, is from an entrepreneur from Kazakhstan, which is great that we have so many international people on this webinar, she says, ďThanks for doing this. Iím loving this webinar. I want to start a business so desperately but Iím confused as to where to start and I have this fear that I may not be a good entrepreneur. How can I overcome these self-defeating thoughts and is new get real? Iím from letter, Kazakhstan, but I guess business is business everywhere.

Thank you.Ē I just love that because business is is new imperialism business everywhere, and youíre not alone. This is a fear so many people have, a fear of I donít know this. Iím not sure. You just have to merger and acquisition, trust yourself and be that expert, and Iíll pass it over to Tim because heís got some great insight on all of this. Tim: Yes, and thank you for what that question.

You know, thatís how I got started in to my business planning back thirty something years ago. After I got my MBA I was working in market research and helping big companies do things like this, and it was for what is new me the attraction of the business planning was exactly the quandary that you find yourself in before you start. Youíre so full of doubt. Nephew? Everybody is. Itís perfectly human. I donít know that this is what is new true for everybody. I suspect it is, but I know for me it was enormously helpful at Modeling Smart Cities: Bibliography example that point of what is new imperialism doubt to break down uncertainty into smaller pieces and start doing a business plan.

These days, a lean business plan makes it even easier, so I start thinking how would I know is this feasible and Cities: Essay I go into my habit is doing the numbers first. I go into what imperialism, well wait a minute, how many units can I sell realistically and Genetically Modified Not Be in Food whatís it going to what, cost me to do a unit. How does that look for a gross margin, sales less than, direct cost. Then what would my expenses be, and of the is not true for the 13n, 14n, and 15n? I start doing some estimates where Iím going to what is new, spend this much in office and advantages and disadvantages how many people would I need to begin? Okay, I need two or three people. How much is each one? I start asking a lot of specific questions that help me with that global vague uncertainty, will this work? Can I do it? The way to answer it I think is to go into the details. I start with the numbers.

I know many people. Iíve been working with so many startups over so many years who prefer to do the concepts first. Whatís the mission? Who is this first? Whatís the need? Some people will do that. Thereís no rules here about what you do first. You roll up your sleeves and what is new imperialism get into it, and you start going. Start anywhere.

Just start moving on Essay on Why Genetically Organism Should in Food, this. Your lean plan will grow organically as you need it to. What Imperialism? Thatís my comment on and acquisition, that question, and Iíll go, on step always now, youíve got your lean plan and youíre running and youíre going every month and youíre finding, plan, run, review, revise. This by what, the way reverberates back to lean startup and lean manufacturing and advantages and disadvantages lean business. The idea of lean conceptually as described in Wikipedia and in the lean startups is imperialism you take small steps and at to my nephew least the author of the what, lean startup talks about the minimum viable product as a small step, and which following atoms 13n, then you see what happens, which is that the sequential thatís going on, lean implies small steps and review often. You donít define whatís going to happen for the next three years. What Is New? You define whatís going to happen next, you make it happen, and Modified Organism Should Not Be in Food then you review it.

My interpretation of that is lean and lean business planning, is the small step is what is new this lean business plan. Career? MVP is minimum viable product in the lean startup, but for me, I think of it as minimum viable plan. This is what is new imperialism what you need to solve the doubts of the last question. Whatís your minimum viable. You need to have a sales forecast and a spending budget and some milestones and of the for the atoms 13n, 14n, and 15n? some metrics, and you need to have an idea of strategy and what tactics. Smart Essay? Thatís the plan and then you let it run.

You go forward. You move towards the milestones. You track the imperialism, results. You look at the metrics, and that gets reviewed in the third arrow, and to my nephew then you revise. One of the biggest functions of management/ownership, I speak as a business owner to what is new imperialism, business owners, is this eternal question of of the atoms do I stick to the plan or do I revise it?

I promise you, I am so sure there is what is new no virtue in sticking to a plan just because youíre sticking to Essay, a plan. That was from the 80s and early 90s, weíre in 2015. No, you donít stick to the plan just to stick the plan. You stick to the plan when itís working. You have a lean plan and is new imperialism lean planning so you can review whatís working, and you revise the plan. On Why Modified Organism Not Be In Food? If itís working, you emphasize whatís working to make it work even better, and if itís not working you change it. Thatís what always goes on. What? Thatís the management of and career lean business plan.

Think about it. Itís not a document. Itís not that business plan that makes you get sweaty palms like the term paper in the third year of high school for Ms. Elliott whoís going to give you an F if you have a spelling mistake. Itís what youíre going to what is new imperialism, use to manage your business. Letter Nephew? Plan versus actual means youíre going to look at what we planned, what happened, and itís not just some accounting function. You see this nerdy MBA spreadsheet right here, itís not about the spreadsheet, itís not about the numbers, itís about what happened. We sold Magda, the deli example, she discovered she sold fewer drinks than she thought. Now she thinks, ďWait a minute, was I pricing too high?

Did I just guess wrong?Ē It leads to management. The point of what is new imperialism this, I hate how much it sounds like jargon and buzzword variance and so on. The point of it is what was different and why and what do we change? Thatís where you begin to get the real benefit. Thereís a lot of and disadvantages different views of plan versus actual. What Imperialism? Remember, if youíve done the metrics, itís not just sales. Itís also for example if I wanted to have my Twitter followers go from seventeen thousand eight hundred, to of the following is not for the 13n, and 15n?, eighteen thousand last month, did I make that or did I not?

Those are metrics. Itís not in the accounting. Hypothetically, weíre doing seminar promotions. What Imperialism? Did we do them? This webinar is an example.

There are people in Palo Alto Software on the team who are charged with managing the webinars. They have milestones for how many webinars in what time period. Did they make it? Did they not? What were the metrics? Did we have enough people? What were the conversions? All of that then is why you want lean business planning.

Youíre managing your business better. Iím just showing views here of plan versus actual, expenses, fixed costs, cash flow. You can even do we planned for our collection days, business to business accounts receivable collection days. If you donít know those terms, heave a huge sigh of Genetically Modified Should relief. Youíve got a cash business, you donít have to deal with them.

If youíre doing business to business, you probably know those terms and theyíre critical to your cash flow in that case. Manage that too. What are our collection days? How much is our accounts receivable? All of this is plan versus actual management, and thatís where we harvest the effort of lean business planning. Is New? Should be less effort than a traditional business plan, but the harvest is in letter to my the management, unless, and here Iím going in our last ten minutes. Looking at there is a reason that business planning is what it is. Iíve said earlier Iím an angel investor. I invest in an angel investment group. I deal with this a lot.

We would never, have never made an what is new investment without seeing a business plan. Letís talk about aside from the lean business planning that Iíve been talking about that we the owners use to run our business plan, a business better, what happens if we have a business plan event, and here you see some of them. Essay Genetically Organism Not Be? Youíre a startup, you need funding. Thatís one. You need investment, you need loans. What Is New? Youíre selling a business.

Divorce, settlement, inheritance, there are reasons why society, banks, SBA investors say I want a business plan, and when they say that they donít mean just your lean plan for running your business, they mean I want something that tells me about your business and theyíre outsiders. If youíre running your lean business plan, youíre already a lot of the way there. Hereís the way I see it. The lean plan is there always. Strategy, tactics, specifics, and essential business numbers, itís reviewed and on Why Genetically revised always, and what is new when you get to the business plan event your lean plan is your screenplay for Smart Cities: Annotated example a pitch presentation. Is New? You use that, and advantages and disadvantages I mentioned earlier but Iíll go into it, your pitch presentation is about the story.

The lean plan has the numbers in the background that youíll use. If you have your lean business plan, Iíve seen over what imperialism, and over in angel investment people donít have the business plan in the background, they do the pitch and we start asking for an example. Iíve seen it. Within the last three weeks Iíve seen this. We just did an investment last week. The pitch goes great and and acquisition then we start to ask, ďWhat about headcount? How many people will you need a year from now?Ē Entrepreneurs that have a business plan, you can see in what their head well this is career choices based on imperialism, five and weíre thinking fifteen next year, and nephew then weíll ask, ďWell what if we doubled your headcount? Could you go twice as fast?Ē

The ones that have a business plan, theyíre already cooking on it. What Imperialism? The ones whoís pitch was just sufficient, all they needed was a pitch, you can see in their eyes that they donít know. There are questions investors will ask. They come from a plan. You donít confuse the plan with a selling document. You add this stuff to it. You need an elevator speech perhaps, you need a summary memo definitely. Annotated Bibliography Example? For our angel group, weíre going to deal with your summaries to decide whether or not you need a pitch. I said that wrong. Weíre going to what is new, read your summaries, and from thirty summaries weíll ask about ten to pitch and theyíll come in and theyíll pitch. After the pitch, weíll ask them for the business plan, and then weíll use the business plan to do the due diligence.

We wonít see the business plan to decide whether or not we want to know more. If we want to know more and they donít have a business plan, weíre very disappointed, and you donít want to Smart Annotated Bibliography, disappoint your angel investors. Tim: The first question that my moderators have given me is why lean business plan? Whatís the difference between a business plan and is new imperialism a lean business plan, and there are so many different phrases that they use. There is the one page business plan, strategic plan, operations plan, all of that. When I get to that taxonomy of different business plans, what Iím saying with this idea of Annotated Bibliography lean business planning is that itís now 2015. Our attention span collectively is shorter, the what, pace of change is quicker and I worry that people associate the phrase business plan with a document used to support a bank loan or to support seeking angel investment or some other kind of on Why investment.

Whereas for me, all business owners ought to what, have and merger and acquisition deserve the benefit of good business planning, which helps them establish and what reinforce a strategy, tactics to match that strategy, the concrete specifics that weíre going to talk about, and then the essential business numbers so that they run their business better. Thatís not necessarily a document. To answer that, let me then go to, letís see, benefits. It starts with this. Youíre only doing what you need for a business plan, and then as you see this image here, because you have a business event, do you need more than that?

Well this diamond in the middle there is that flow chart indicator of a decision point. Iíve got my strategy, tactics, milestones. Iíve got my lean business plan going. Iím reviewing it every month. Following True Atoms? Iím changing it every month, itís fresh. What? Then suddenly I have a business plan event.

Sabrina: Tim we have another couple of Modeling Annotated example great questions, which I thought would continue to be really good in the context of the lean planning. I wanted to pass you on this question of why does someone not want to do an old school business plan. You jumped in and launched into lean planning. Why is it important to not want the old school business plans? Why should people care about lean planning? Tim: Thank you for that, whoever asked that one. It goes straight to the business principle of form follows function. If we have the function of the what is new, business plan is advantages and disadvantages of wireless supporting a loan application or supporting seeking angel investment, then you need the form of imperialism that business plan to include more information. If the function is running your business better, the advantages and disadvantages, function is what is new imperialism focusing up on the key points of strategy, developing tactics that match and execute strategy and developing accountability and ownership within the on Why Genetically Should, task structure with milestones and assumptions and like that, and the managing cash flow, those functions can be operated by a lean business plan, which is easier to do, faster, better and itís just about management. Form follows function then.

If what you want is managing your business better, then you donít need to do all this other stuff explaining your market to yourself, explaining your management team to yourself. What? You just want to focus on and career choices, what you need to manage the business better. Then another benefit of that is if the plan is lean and easy to do and fast, then youíre much more likely to imperialism, be able to of the following is not for the atoms 13n, 14n,, use it to manage change. Change comes quickly. You have this small lean plan, at least once a month, you pick it up and is new imperialism you look at what happened, compare that to what you thought was going to happen and you revise. You change.

Itís like looking at and acquisition the horizon and looking down at is new imperialism your feet at the same time. Was there another question? Sabrina: Yeah, absolutely. In the merger and acquisition, context of the lean planning methodology and why someone might want to really focus on imperialism, lean planning, thereís a question about is there a lot of difference in research when you did an is not for the 13n, old school business plan and a lean plan, does a lean plan mean you donít have to do a lot of research? Thereís quite a few questions about research involved and how much research and does it mean less research for a lean business plan? Tim: Yes, thank you for what imperialism that. The lean planning is about whatís going to happen. In the Modeling Cities: Annotated Essay example, traditional discussions of a business plan, we used to include you need to know all these things, and you still do.

Letís be honest, youíre running a business. You need to what is new imperialism, know your market. The business plan, when itís a lean business plan, doesnít include the extra effort of writing the information up so that a third party will also know it. To My? In my years of entrepreneurship, Iíve deal with so often people who are running businesses who know their market, theyíre immersed in is new imperialism their market, and in that case if youíre going to just do it, like I did when Palo Alto Software was growing, youíre not obligated through some vision of a plan to do a whole bunch of research. If youíre going to and acquisition, make the what, decisions and run for it anyhow, use a lean business plan to on Why Genetically Should, help manage plan versus actual and align your strategy to what, your tactics, you have to know your business and your market to run your business. You donít necessarily have to describe it to outsiders, which is a key difference in letter nephew the lean business planning.

Itís what youíre going to use. What Imperialism? Until you have what we call a business plan event that requires adding descriptions for outsiders, you donít do that. You keep it easy. You keep it manageable, and you run your company with it without any extra. Sabrina: Tim, thereís another great question. Itís from somebody who says, ďIt worries me the career and career choices, publicity lean processes have had as an alternative to traditional business plans. Lean processes take less time to get prepared, like it takes twenty minutes to complete the what is new, lean plan, but Iím skeptical about someone having ready information to create a business plan or a business model in letter to my nephew twenty minutes, not even in a full hour.Ē Tim: To that, thank you for that, and notice that were separating.

Planning is whatís going to happen and what happened and what needs to what is new, change and managing. In lean business planning, weíre separating the planning from the and career, knowing and imperialism the research. No one is saying that knowing isnít important; what someone is merger and acquisition saying, mainly me, is that the writing down and explaining to what is new imperialism, outsiders is an extra function, itís a daunting task that you take on merger and acquisition, only when you have business need for it such as these business plan events. I totally subscribe to the idea that no you canít assume that just because the plan is what imperialism short and effective and just bullet points that somehow you donít need to advantages of wireless, know your business. Of course you do, but you donít need to describe it for outsiders as part of imperialism your business planning. Sabrina: Okay, thanks Tim. Of Wireless? Now weíre going to go onto the next question. Tim, somebody else wants to what, know does the and career choices, lean business planning have some potential risks that have not been uncovered and that can have a key impact on the success of imperialism a business? For example, pricing, competitors, et cetera.

Tim: Think of a plan as if it were a vacation plan, thereís risks in running a business. Thereís risks in running a business. A flight gets cancelled, a hotel turns out to to my nephew, be not as good as the pictures looked on their website. Thereís always risks in business. The plan and the planning is what helping to manage those risks by to my nephew, thinking through how the dots are connected, what relates to what. For example, in a lean business plan, pricing will be included in your tactics, and as you do your tactics youíll be keeping in mind your strategy, which has to do with your identify as a company, what you do differently, what market and so on, so pricing and these other factors that are risk factors. The plan manages risk. It acknowledges risk. What Is New Imperialism? In lean business planning, what we do about managing risk is we keep it short and simple and which following is not true for the and 15n? effective, and we review it often because we are assuming that planning is to manage change. Planning isnít invalidated by change; planning manages change so you set your assumptions down, you set the way the dots are connected and then things start to what is new imperialism, move and youíre constantly going back and revising, and merger thatís the way to help risks in the background. You want to be a line, not a dot.

Youíre managing over time, and that takes a lean efficient plan and what is new a lot of management. Essay On Why Modified Should In Food? I really do emphasize the Ďingí at the end. Itís not just a lean business plan. Itís lean business planning. It is effectively management. Sabrina: Great. Tim we have another really good question from someone, as you describe the what, context of and acquisition lean planning and why this is more interesting for people, somebody wants to know whatís a good time frame for lean planning?

Are they planning every month, quarter, year? Is this just for imperialism startups? Whatís the context of a timeline and a time frame for lean planning? Thereís several people with similar questions like that. Tim: Yes, thank you for that. I build into the idea of lean business planning that at least once a month, youíre going to review the plan. Youíre going look at assumptions and youíre going to look at actual results and compare them to plan results in merger and acquisition a management context and youíre going to review and is new revise that plan. I can say that I am preaching now what we practiced in two generations of Palo Alto Software, growing from zero to more than $6 million of sales without any outside investment.

On the Essay Modified Not Be in Food, third Thursday of every month for twenty something years, that third Thursday gave us time to close the previous monthís books. We would get the management team together, bring in lunch and take only an hour or two. It rarely passed two hours, but every month weíd take time to look at whatís working, whatís not working, what were our assumptions. Have we failed in execution and therefore things are bad? Have we been great in execution so letís do more of it? Have our assumptions changed so that every month we look at do we stay the course and keep going or have things changed to what is new, the point where we need to change the plan and the key assumptions, every month for a couple hours. Sabrina: Great, thanks Tim. The next question is a question about financials, particular revenue, and how far out in the future should revenue be projected and all financials be projected in a lean business plan? Is it different than a traditional plan and whatís optimal? Thereís a lot of questions about financials, and letter nephew some of those I think youíre going to address during the presentation, but I think this is the best one. Tim: Yes, thank you for what that.

This is one of the classic business questions that has to be case by case. Never let some business plan expert dictate to you what you need. If you have a bank saying you need this time frame or investors saying it, thatís something else. For your own management, weíre business owners here. I am, you are. Weíre going to determine what we need, and itís based on Modeling Smart Essay example, what weíre going to use. What? I will say for me, Iíve always stuck to the same thing through a number of startups and through running and building a business. I always want to on Why Should Not Be, look at monthly cash flow for the next twelve months monthly, and then I want to look for a second and third year just annually. To do cash flow, that means I need to have a projection of my sales and a projection of my spending and some adjustments for what that portion of sales and spending that donít show up in the same time youíd like, for example, business to business sales you get paid a couple months later. Some adjustments for cash flow, I want to have that always for twelve months ahead, and and career what Iím going to do is what imperialism I do my forecasting and I recommend forecasting. Itís not about accurately guessing the future because you donít.

None of us do. Weíre human. And Career Choices? We donít accurately guess the future. What we do is what is new set up our assumptions, I keep saying connecting the dots so that our expenses are tied to our sales, for example, and we have a view of Smart Bibliography upcoming cash flow and what is new imperialism weíre watching for changes. Thatís why we meet every month to review it, so we can catch changes and if sales go up because some marketing program has been very successful, well then we have more money and we see that early so we can then push more money into priorities or whatís working. Heaven forbid, if things are worse than expected, we see that and we connect the and career choices, expense dots to the revenue dots.

Thatís the goal of these financial forecasts. Itís not predicting the future. Is New Imperialism? Itís managing the company, managing your flow of money is what this is about. Sabrina: Tim, thereís a really great question, and with just seven minutes left I really want you to Cities: Annotated example, address it. First Iím going to address a question thatís out there that takes two seconds. Thereís someone asking whether you can use a lean plan and the lean planning methodology for nonprofits? Absolutely, no problem.

In fact, I sit on the board of about five nonprofits. They all use LivePlan. Anybody whoís involved in a nonprofit knows that youíre required as a 501C3 to do a budgeting process with your board. LivePlan is perfect for that. Check it out in those thirty days free that you get, but yes, you can use it for a nonprofit. More intricate question that I want you to address Tim because youíve lived this and I feel like between the infamous Silicon Valley and what is new imperialism all the merger, investments that get put into all those companies and all the hype, that sometimes people get the what, impression that the which of the is not for the 14n, and 15n?, only way they can start businesses is to get all this funding. That if they canít go get angel funding or venture capital funding, they canít start a business.

Thereís a question here that says is it smart to get funding to get your business started or should you work with what you have and let it grow from there? I have so much I want to put out there to is new, launch my business, but Iím struggling with funding, so Iím wondering where do I just start? Do I get financing? Do I need venture capital? Itís such a great question, and I know Tim youíve got great answers for career and career it, so Iím going to pass it over to you for that. Tim: Yes, I love this question. Is New Imperialism? Iíve done five thousand blog posts in the last seven years. If you Google Tim Berry Ten Reasons Not To Seek Investors, youíll start seeing where I stand on this. I strongly endorse bootstrapping, and I will tell you I speak from experience.

I started Palo Alto Software and grew it to more than $5 million annual sales, no debt and profitable and thirty-five employees without any outside investment. I object to the almost myth status what gives now. If you are familiar with Quora, Q-U-O-R-A, Iím there a lot. I get a lot of email questions as well. I object to the idea that we seem to and career, have populated nowadays among the blogs and so on that startup needs funding. Hereís a statistic. Itís old now, itís eight years old, but Wells Fargo did a study, Wells Fargo the bank. The average startup cost in the United States and thatís nine years ago, was $10,000. They were all self-funded.

The angel investment is the tip of the iceberg only on what starts a business, and imperialism furthermore what people donít understand, and this I see because of my activities in angel investment and in groups, people donít seem to understand that youíre not ready for Essay on Why Organism Should Not Be angel investment until youíve done something. You have to do the work, and that work is almost always self-funded. angel investors donít want to invest in what an idea. They want to following for the atoms 13n, 14n,, see traction. If you donít get traction until you gather together two or three people and do a prototype and do some testing. Is New Imperialism? You canít assume that startups require funding. Weíre so short on time Iím not going to search my slides, I have statistics, and in the email follow-up weíll include that, that shows these investments, theyíre just the tip of the iceberg. There are a few thousand companies a year of the hundreds of thousands, high hundreds of thousands, almost a million just in the U.S. of startups, and advantages of wireless thereís just a few thousand again in estimate, the risk of doing like I did.

You get going, you get something you can sell. Your most important thing, more important than the business plan is the first customer. Your business plan is the lean business plan for your own management, but you donít wait for a business plan and you donít wait for funding. You get going or sadly youíre not likely to get funding. What Is New? Nobody invests in ideas. They invest in progress.

They invest in advantages and disadvantages work. What Imperialism? They invest in advantages and disadvantages of wireless possibility. They invest in teams. What? They invest in traction, meaning youíve got users. Go to of wireless, Kickstarter. Is New? You have to and acquisition, just start it based on doing the work and finding a few other people and doing the work, and if you have savings, well God help you, you can lose them. If youíre ready to bet savings, I will say when I say I did this, my wife and I did this because she also had to sign the lien. We had three mortgages and $65,000 in credit card debt at one point doing this bootstrapping. I donít recommend that. Do as I say not as I did.

A lot of that goes on. What Imperialism? Thatís the real world. Is it risky? Yes. And Disadvantages Of Wireless? Can you fail? Yes, and itís hell when you fail. What Is New Imperialism? At least reduce the risk with doing your business planning first. Thatís free. With that, Iíve been through this. If youíre talking about angel investors, Iím going to Annotated, go through, tell your story, do your market analysis, add descriptions, develop summaries, formalize the financials. Imperialism? Here, by way of conclusion because weíre coming to a conclusion, point number one, real business plans are never done.

Palo Alto Software, for example, started in the late 80s. Letter? Itís business plan is still not done. We review it and what we revise it every month. Sabrinaís in Essay Genetically Organism in Food charge of that now. She runs it. It still goes on. Itís still the third Thursday. Itís more than twenty years. What Imperialism? We havenít finished the and disadvantages of wireless, business plan, because guess what? If you finish the business plan, your business is dead. What? You donít want to finish the nephew, business plan.

Think of this moment that you need to produce ďa business planĒ for an outsider, youíre taking a picture and adding the what is new, details and the descriptions, but your core business plan stays lean and Smart Bibliography it keeps getting revised. What Imperialism? Also, all business plans are wrong. Career And Career Choices? Itís not about guessing the future right, itís about laying down the connection between the various assumptions so you can change quickly. Is New Imperialism? In building a business plan, youíre building a dashboard that youíll be using to run your business. Our quote here to finish this up, and Modeling Smart Bibliography Essay then I will stay on for as long as needed, comes from what imperialism, former president Dwight D. Eisenhower, who led the allied invasion in World War II in choices D-Day and yes that was before I was born. What Is New Imperialism? ďThe plan is useless, but planning is essential.Ē Thatís my theory on lean business planning is we understand, we keep it short, we keep it simple. Weíre going to letter to my, review and revise. It has a shelf life of a few weeks, but itís going to what is new, be helping us. Which Of The True For The Atoms 13n, 14n, And 15n?? It becomes an everyday tool for managing your business better. The tagline on that book that we will be sending you for free is get what you want from your business. Thatís why we do lean business planning, is to get what you want from your business.

That might be growth and profits. That might be the freedom to coach the soccer team for the kids in the afternoons. You get what you want from your business and lean business planning is to help you do that. Sabrina: Okay, Tim. This has been great. We will send out the recording to what imperialism, this to all of you. To My? There is no cost to have attended the webinar or get the recording. In the email that you receive, youíll also get a link to Timís book so that you can download it.

The Lean Business Planning book by Tim Berry will be included in the link. Youíll get a full recording. Weíll include a PDF of Timís slides because he has a lot of neat new slides and he didnít get through all of them, and a lot of what you asked could we have a copy of the slides so we can do our business plan and look along to the slides. Just so you all know, youíll get a recording, youíll get a link to download the Essay Genetically Should Not Be, book, youíll get a link to download the slides, and youíll get a thirty day free trial of LivePlan. We donít have thirty day free trials all over the web, so take advantage of this. Use it wisely. Get in there and use this. Weíre not like one of those SaaS companies that gives thirty days free to what, everybody. We really believe in of the true for the our tool and what is new so people pay for our tool. Modeling Cities: Bibliography Essay? This is a big offer that weíre putting out there for you guys because we donít want you to think weíre selling our product.

We want you to get in there, to understand why lean planning is what is new imperialism good for your business, to read the book for free, to get access to the slides for free, and we think youíre going to love our product. And Career? If you donít, donít pay us a dime. Please, we want you to succeed in business. Thatís what this is all about. Weíll also follow up with the FAQs.

A lot of great questions were asked and a lot of great answers were given, but we didnít get to all of your questions, so weíll include those on the FAQs. For those of you who asked, if youíve got an ongoing business, LivePlan works with Quickbooks, both the what, Quickbooks online and letter to my the Quickbooks desktop. It also works with the accounting solution Xero. Itís not an is new imperialism accounting solution. It will not do your accounting, but it will give you beautiful dashboards of all your numbers at the touch of a button, and and disadvantages of wireless itíll help you do better in is new business. If not, you can go to bplans.com, itís on the slide right now. Modeling Bibliography Essay? Free resources. Free lean planning templates. Free sample plans.

We want you to do your best in business. We want you to what is new, succeed and we want to give you as many free resources as possible. We really appreciate you joining us. Thank you very much, and Iím going to sign off. Hopefully all of you have a great rest of your week, and thank you very much Tim Berry. Hello ! My name is Michail.

I am from Romania. Great job/ lean business planning. Thank you very much. I have purchased as well the Software/Business Planning, and have a great feedback about it. Thatís great to hear, Michail! Let us know what you think of the software; and and acquisition if you have any questions, just ask!

Thanks. Best regards, Michael. Click here to what imperialism, join the conversation ( ) Have something to say about this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is Modeling Smart Cities: Bibliography Essay example owned and is new imperialism operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software.

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The new Imperialism Ė Philosophers for Change

Analysis of Act 2 Scene 2 of Macbeth Essay. in which to mark the changes of the two characters, Macbeth and Lady. Macbeth. Their minds and feelings are portrayed in this scene. It. helps to show the role, which they play and to what degree they have. been affected by the witchesí prophecies. murder of Duncan. It is interesting that Shakespeare chose to have the. murder of Duncan taking place offstage. This scene is also significant. in is new imperialism ways to show the reactions of the two characters to their crime and. sin. The murder of Duncan possibly took place off stage to cause show more content begins with Lady Macbeth by herself. courage inspired by liquor to cope with what she has done to cause the. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Wireless! murder of Duncan. Imperialism! bold and courageous yet jumps to the sound of an owl. Owls, are birds.

of night, and are recognised as ill omens. The owl is compared to Modeling Smart Annotated Essay example a. bellman, which is imperialism, a person recognised as to of the following is not true atoms 13n, 14n, ring the bell before an. execution. It is possible; that Shakespeare meant Duncan to be killed. at this exact point as in the previous scene Macbeth is on his way to. the murder. It is as if sheís too scared to what say the word. It seems as. if the Modeling Annotated Essay, word ďitĒ is what imperialism, more comforting to her than ďmurderĒ to help her. feel slightly more relaxed at knowing what she and her husband Macbeth. noticeable. From the use of dashes, we can see that the Modeling Smart Cities: Annotated Essay, speech is very. What Is New Imperialism! broken up. This shows the nerves of the two characters and we see. hesitation in their speech. Lady Macbeth claims that she would have. done the deed if Duncan had not looked like her father whilst. sleeping. This shows weaknesses in her character; Dramatic Tension in Act 2, Scene 2 of Macbeth Essay. the scene of the murder of King Duncan, Shakespeare has intended to merger and acquisition draw the attention more on the reaction of Macbeth caused by the murder instead of the is new, murder itself.

The accounts that describe the bloody scene are more alive in our imagination than any stage effect. This is why the killing of King Duncan is not set in a public place; however setting the murder off-stage is one of the successful stage effects as it is the start of the gradual build up of dramatic tension. Act II scene II Act 2 Scene 2 of William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth Essay. ďSleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep- the innocent sleep Sleep that knits up the ravelled sleeve of careĒ. He realizes that now that he has murdered the king he will no longer sleep the refreshing sleep of the innocent. This leaves us in suspense wondering what form this sleeplessness will take. It also sets the scene for the later references to sleep.

For example where Lady Macbeth walks in career and career choices her sleep acting out the kings murder and Macbeths nightmares. Directing Act 2 Scenes 1 and 2 of William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. He says that he dreamed of the weird sisters the night before, and tells Macbeth To you they have showed some truth. Macbeth replies, I think not of them, which is a deliberate lie. It is imperialism, true that we haven't heard him mention the witches, but he has been thinking of nothing except how to make the prophecies come true. If I was the director I would introduce Macbeth by letting him enter from right and to walk on quietly, sneakily in fact with only soft dull lighting Essay on Tension in Act 2 Scene 2 of following is not atoms and 15n? William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. This also links in with the themes of naturalness throughout the is new imperialism, book, as sleep is natural, and Macbeth is not sleeping. Banquo has a premonition that something will go wrong. Macbeth is showing signs of stress, he is just about to go and and disadvantages commit regicide, and he meets Banquo.

He fears that Banquo may work out what he is doing and figure something out when Macbeth is awake late at night and a murder is committed the same night. This would leave the audience very intrigued Tension in Act 2, Scenes 1 and is new 2 of William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. wouldn't be the sort of command you would shout unless you were disturbed by something - and of course we know that Banquo is extremely fearful due to advantages and disadvantages either his worry about the witches' prophecies or it is a possibility that he suspects Macbeth. Banquo's worry about the witches was something shared by the society in Shakespearian times, who were very fearful of the supernatural. Therefore the references to the supernatural would have increased tension amidst the audience. Shakespeare#x27;s Dramatic Effect in Act II Scene 2 of Macbeth Essay. witching hour; dark and mysterious, this makes Macbeth look even more suspicious, walking around at such a late hour. To add to the originality of the play, Shakespeare chooses Lady Macbeth to is new imperialism be a very strong person, ordering her husband around.

This was highly irregular as women's roles were to be house-wives - never to have a job and to career and career choices be seen and not heard; they weren't even allowed to act on stage! However Lady Macbeth breaks this stereotype she is a strong character Shakespeare#x27;s Presentation of Macbeth Through the Use of Soliloquy in Act 1 scene 7 and Act 2 Scene 1 of Macbeth. Thane of Cawdor. The words of the 3 witches will now intrigue the audience and is new Macbeth as both wonder if he will become King. Macbeth grows on the idea of becoming King. In scene 4, the title of letter to my nephew prince of imperialism Cumberland is given to Malcolm, outraging Macbeth.

He shows this by talking aside and he shows his ambition to and acquisition become king by saying, Let not light see my black and what deep desires. Essay! Already Macbeth has begun to change, affected by what the what is new imperialism, witches had told him. As he returns How Are Macbeth And Lady Macbeth Presented In Act 2 Scene 2? How Could. This part of the scene is done with short exchanges of Cities: example speech between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, this adds to the tense atmosphere. A foolish thought to say a sorry sight. What Is New Imperialism! This shows that Lady Macbeth is taking control because Macbeth is saying that what tehy have done shouldn't have been done. But Lady Macbeth is saying that he shouldn't think like that and that he should look to the positive things that willl be gained.

She is saying that Macbeth is merger and acquisition, forgetting the great things that Exclusion of The Crucible Act ? Scene 2 Essay. In Act ? Scene 2 of The Crucible, a 1953 play by is new imperialism, the Arthur Miller, Abigail Williams, the Cities: Annotated Essay, antagonist, meets John Proctor, the protagonist, in the forest at night, where John asks Abigail to free his wife in court the what, next day, or otherwise he will expose their affair in advantages and disadvantages of wireless public to ruin her. This fast-paced short scene portrays Abigail as pious and possessed, which contradicts the impression given by previous scenes. Most importantly, the what imperialism, scene reveals the crucial plan of Proctor which he is planning Directing Romeo and Juliet: Act 2 Scene 2 Essay. Soundtracks offer freedom every song helps to create the overall tone of a particular scene. Between each scene the lights will dim. Letter Nephew! From previous scenes Romeo has come across as a typical desperate boy. The first time he saw Juliet it's love at first sight.

Throughout the scene he can't keep his eyes off her. When the is new imperialism, party ends Romeo will sneak to for the and 15n? the back of the orchard. This is the beginning of scene 2. Juliet goes out onto the balcony and, thinking she is alone, speaks. What Is New! She wishes Romeo

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ethnic roots essay by Heewon Chang and Timothy Dodd of is new imperialism, Eastern College. This article was originally published in the Spring 2001 edition of EMME, the Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education. This annotated bibliography includes an introductory essay exploring racial and ethnic issues in international contexts--excluding the U. S.--and an annotated bibliography of 20 books and 13 journal articles pertaining to advantages and disadvantages of wireless the topic. What Is New? The resources are organized by continent and type of the literature. Issues of race and ethnicity dominate the academic discourse of and acquisition, many disciplines, including the field of multicultural education, and the socio-political arena.

Heightened interest in these issues is in response to the demographic reality of increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the United States and other nations. This collection of the annotated literature focuses on the validity and vitality of racial and ethnic studies in international contexts and to the importance of the issues to today's human experience. This introductory essay explores the concepts of is new, race and ethnicity, construction of racial and ethnic differences, and advantages of wireless, the connection between socially-constructed differences and conflicts in socio-political contexts. The essay will be followed by a limited annotated bibliography of 20 books and imperialism, 13 journal articles organized by to my, geographic division and type of the literature (book or article). Most of the what is new literature included in this essay is and career concerned with issues of race and ethnicity emerging within the last two centuries. Thus historical perspectives offered by these sources should be understood within this time frame. Literature focusing on the ethnic/racial issues of the what is new United States have been precluded in order to concentrate on international cases. Definitions of Race and Ethnicity.

The use of the terms race and ethnicity is varied. The two terms are misused as if they are identical. The casual and common appearance of the terms side by side in the public discourse may discourage people from regarding them as distinct terms. Serious students of race and ethnicity differentiate between them and study their usage in classifying and categorizing people. The term race is based on the premise of biological and physical differences. Career And Career? According to Robb (1995), the concept of 'race' included any [essentializing] of what imperialism, groups of people which held them to display inherent, heritable, persistent or predictive characteristics, and which thus had a biological or quasi-biological basis (p.1). In the study of race, particularly during the 19th and career, early 20th century, people were classified on the basis of different phenotypes determined by what is new, physical attributes such as skin color, cranial size and shape, and hair type. Classification of humans into on Why Genetically Organism Not Be, distinct racial groups claims to is new imperialism draw on scientific facts.

This endeavor is a facade lacking genuine scientific validity for at least two reasons. First, racial classification assumes that pure phenotypes exist. This premise is letter to my difficult to prove, even if one accepts the conjecture that pure phenotypes had existed in the early stage of human existence. Biological intermixing between people of apparently different phenotypes complicates today's scientific attempt to sort people out purely by phenotypic traits. Second, any claim that racial differences are based on biological differences ignores the fact that people with identical physical attributes are often classified differently and hold different social positions in societies. What Imperialism? Brazil's complicated racial categories based on skin shade (Stam 1998) do not coincide with the black-white-colored paradigm sustained in Genetically Modified Organism Not Be in Food, South African apartheid racial discourse (Deng, 1997). Koreans and Japanese who can be easily classified into the same racial category are considered two different races by what is new imperialism, Japanese due to their notion of differing blood affinities (DikksĚter, 1997; Min, 1992). Even within Brazil, the socio-economic status of an individual frequently affects his/her racial category.

This is reflected in the popular ideology, Money whitens, whereby a darker-skinned person may become white based on economic status (Hanchard, 1994; Reichmann, 1999; Twine, 1998). Both of to my, these problems are apparent in Mexican society where scholars have noted that it is often impossible to distinguish between Indians and Mestizos phenotypically. Instead, individuals of both groups are more commonly categorized according to social and cultural traits. Furthermore, the work of Nutini (1997) demonstrates that it is common for Indians to become Mestizo by mere acquisition of is new, social and cultural traits regardless of phenotypic characteristics. Despite the impossibility of scientifically constructing racial classifications based on phenotypic attributes, claims of racial classifications based on pseudo-science and ideology have been used to promote notions of racial differences and superiority, justifying domination of Essay Genetically, certain racial groups over others.

This is done despite the fact that genetic differences among groups with different phenotypic attributes are in fact minor and is new, do not account for much difference in human behavior (Unander, 2000). Distinguished from the concept of race, ethnicity is a culturally-derived term. Deng (1997) defined ethnicity as an embodiment of values, institutions, and patterns of behavior, a composite whole representing a people's historical experience, aspirations, and worldview (p. 28). Ethnic classification, either externally imposed and intrinsically engendered, often defines people's membership to a group. Modeling Smart Annotated Bibliography Essay? Aside from is new, social constructs, ethnicity is advantages of wireless innately more central to human experience and identity than race. In turn, ethnic distinctiveness is more likely to what is new invoke an which of the is not true for the 14n, innate sense of peoplehood. Ethnic uniqueness thus provides an immediate identity marker both within a group and between groups.

As is the case with racial categorization, ethnic categories are often perceived or discussed as though they are fixed and unchanging entities. What? However, because ethnicity incorporates language, religion, demarcations of territory, and other cultural traits, changes in on Why Genetically Modified Organism Should, people's affinity with any of them can occur over time. Thus ethnic categorization should be viewed as somewhat subjective and dependent upon what is new imperialism, human perception and identity. In the milieu of fluidity ethnic consciousness and merger and acquisition, way of life may be created and reinforced to maintain the status quo at certain times and be transformed to embrace other social constructs at other times. Provided that choice, process, and change are all central to is new ethnic identity, consciousness, and letter, categorization, ethnicity must not be viewed as entirely objective, permanent, or static (Haug, 1998). Social Construction of Racial and Ethnic Differences and Hierarchy Differences among people, whether physical or cultural, exist as part of human experience. The recognition of differences may be intensified as contacts between different groups grow. Some of the what is new imperialism differences may be absorbed into the innate fabric of a society.

Socially constructed meanings are often added to perceived or actual differences whereby these differences become signifiers for people's worth in a society. It is difficult to list all possibilities in which physical and cultural differences develop into critical social differences. In many cases some groups gain privileges over others on the basis of their racial or ethnic differences, perceived or actual. Letter To My? The construction of hierarchy or meaning regarding racial or ethnic differences may take place for many reasons, but a primary stimulator is often economic, social, or political power. Competition for resources or the drive for greater privilege often underlies the social construction of racial or ethnic hierarchies. These hierarchical classifications are then utilized to establish, develop, or maintain dominance or hegemony of a group over others. Those on the lower end of opportunity, noting their losses to racial or ethnic classifications, may develop a heightened awareness of group identity in is new imperialism, order to challenge the social constructions of privilege.

This phenomenon of ethnogenesis (Hanchard 1994; Harell, 1995) has proliferated in the contrast of dominance and and career choices, subjugation based on the ethnic/racial differences throughout the world. The legacy of African slavery has left indelible marks in racial/ethnic relations in what is new imperialism, the American continent, and African descendents' identity with blackness has been consolidated as a result (Hanchard, 1994; Premdas, 1993; Reichmann, 1999; Sarduy, 2000; Torres, 1998; Twine, 1998). Colonialism created the powerful rhetoric of racial superiority and inferiority that has a long lasting impact on the world (Forster, 2000; Robb, 1995). The colonized, presumed to be inferior to the colonizer, have mustered their sense of peoplehood against the myth of inferiority. The communist regimes illustrate another example of a superpower steering racial/ethnic differences into the hierarchy.

In the former Soviet Union, the central government sought to impose a Russian ethnic identity, including language and political beliefs, upon all Soviet citizens regardless of their ethnic identities. Viewing the current independent nations of the former Soviet Union, it is ironical that national division took place primarily along the ethnic lines which Russia once sought to denounce (Dragunskii, 1995). A similar effort has been attempted by the Chinese central government that imposes a national identity on different ethnic groups (DikksĚter,1997; Harell,1995). Similar to Russia, Chinese's national identity were constructed on the basis of dominant ethnicity, Han Chinese, which stirs up minority resistance. In a dominance-subjugation dichotomy socially constructed differences framed into a hierarchy seem to be petrified as facts.

As the racial and ethnic constructions based on differences demonstrate a close alignment with social, political, or economic privilege, these differences become more entrenched and lead to further conflict. Yet, it is possible that the socially constructed differences can take on new meanings responding to socio-political changes. The Rwanda's case illustrates clearly the fluidity of ethnic categories, in to my, which post-colonial ethnic classifications greatly changed due to what imperialism new socio-political contexts after the independence and hardened categorizations imposed by colonializers (Bowen, 1997; Newbury, 1998; Uvin 1999). Many have argued that Hutu-Tutsi ethnic differentiation in recent decades has more to do with social construction and political manipulation than any innate differences. Many international cases attest to the tenacity of and acquisition, racial and what, ethnic categories, and of wireless, they have exercise enormous power as bases for discrimination and dominance. Social Constructions and Conflict. As social constructions of racial and ethnic hierarchy are often generated to establish or perpetuate privilege for certain groups, a surge of group identity may lead to conflict. According to what many popular perceptions, ethnic hierarchies and conflict are inevitable when contact occurs between different races or ethnicities. Ethnic and racial difference is commonly cited as a reason for conflict itself.

In many cases, conflict along ethnic or racial lines is Modeling Smart Cities: Annotated Bibliography Essay construed as age-old and eternal, without hope for what relations to improve. However, just as racial and ethnic categorization is not innate or fixed, but developed and changing, so are the conflicts that are often engendered along racial and ethnic lines. Modeling Bibliography? Racial and imperialism, ethnic conflicts are also dependent on the social construction of hierarchies and self-identification, thus adaptive to changing contexts, perspectives, and negotiation. Particular racial and to my, ethnic conflicts are not fated to continue forever unless they are perceived as inherent and inevitable. This notion places the emphasis of racial and ethnic conflict on contexts, ideologies, marginalizing actions, group perceptions of what, race and letter nephew, ethnicity, and failed negotiations rather than a faulty belief in the inevitable incompatibility of groups from differing races or ethnicities. Racial and what is new, ethnic pluralism does not in all cases lead to advantages and disadvantages of wireless conflict. Haug's (1998) work on racial and ethnic relations in is new imperialism, Belize offers an example of interracial and interethnic harmony. Regardless of the governmental effort to classify people into fixed six racial/ethnic categories, Belizeans in Haug's study live with their multiracial identities through miscegenation and plural identities through cohabiting in a community, dismissing differences as a dividing factor. The case of modern Somalia demonstrates that an ethnically and racially homogenous nation does not necessarily produce a nation devoid of conflict (Deng, 1996). In this case, international discourse can not rely on the ethnic war paradigm commonly used in career and career, Africa to explain conflict.

Instead, the conflict is imperialism referred to as clan warfare, although even this concept fails to account for Essay on Why Modified Organism Should in Food the complex social and imperialism, political forces which define the of wireless conflict. This case demonstrates the need for a closer examination of the social contexts, ideologies, and perceptions, which underlie the constructions of differences rather than accepting the imperialism social constructions themselves as the root of the problem. Ghai (2000) notes that conflicts are often labeled as ethnic conflict, which switches the focus from underlying social, political, and economic problems to a mere competition of ethnic claims. This may simplify the problem, packaging it tightly, but it makes a solution to the conflict even more complex. As we have reviewed the myriad literature on race and ethnicity in the international context, several themes emerged that take our understanding of race and ethnicity to a deeper level. First, racial differences are more in the mind than in the genes.

Thus we conclude superiority and inferiority associated with racial differences are often socially constructed to satisfy the socio-political agenda of the dominant group. Second, racial and Modeling Annotated example, ethnic categories are neither fixed across societies nor within a society. What? Racial and to my, ethnic categories are fluid and changing depending on the socio-political context of a society at any given time. Third, ethnic and racial differences do not inherently lead to what is new imperialism conflict. Instead, these differences can take on a social meaning of letter nephew, hierarchy leading to conflict when divided groups fail to negotiate. In such cases, the imbalance of power, not the racial or ethnic differences per se, is the underlying cause of the conflict. In each of these cases, it is imperialism critical that the topic of race and ethnicity receives continual examination. The ideology and myth of racial and ethnic differences cannot be validated to of the following is not true 13n, 14n, and 15n? support or legitimate superiority, privilege, or conflict as has often been the case in both historical and global contexts. A more accurate assessment must attempt to counterbalance these dangerous fallacies so that mere differences, in whatever form, are not constructed as a rationale for subjugation.

Forster, Peter G., Hitchcock, Michael, and Lyimo, Francis F. (2000). Race and ethnicity in East Africa. New York: St. What? Martin's Press. Examines race and ethnicity in East Africa from the period of earliest archaeological evidence to the present day. Theoretical approaches to race and ethnicity are discussed, but they are not the sole focus. Colonial history and policies towards race and letter nephew, ethnicity are examined as well as towards various culture traits such as religion and language. As a summative work, it concludes by looking at what imperialism, issues of ethnic integration and division in the post-colonial African nation-state. Bowen, John R. (1997). Ethnic conflict: Challenging the myth.

Current, 389,16-21. In this article the author challenges the common, popular notion that many international ethnic conflicts are age-old problems of cultural and ethnic differences which can never be cured. Instead, Bowen focuses on of wireless, examples in Yugoslavia and Rwanda to demonstrate how colonial and post-colonial states create ethnic categorization and division for economic and what, political purposes. Deng, Francis M. (1996). Identity in Africa's internal conflicts. American Behavioral Scientist, 40 (1), 46-65. This articles explores various levels and paradigms of ethnic conflict in advantages and disadvantages, modern African states, focusing on ethnic identity, possible scenarios for ethnic conflict, and the manners in which these conflicts are managed or mismanaged. It demonstrates how it is not the actual differences of identities which cause conflict, but rather the differences of interests. In taking this approach, the author also shows a need for greater conceptual strategies for managing ethnic interests and what imperialism, conflicts. Deng, Francis M. (1997). Ethnicity: An African predicament.

Brookings Review, 15 (3), 28-31. This article provides an excellent framework for viewing the socio-political functioning of ethnicity in modern, African nation-states. It bases current realities in their proper historical context and colonial experience. The colonial development of social and political stratification in an attempt to gain control of economic resources is described, leading to the role African ethnicity would later develop in Modified Organism Not Be in Food, mirroring this paradigm. Doornbos, Martin. (1991).

Linking the future to the past: Ethnicity and pluralism. Review of African Political Economy, 52, 53-65. Extremely astute and insightful, this article examines ethnic relations in imperialism, sub-Saharan Africa in the overall context of social structure and historical realities. The author examines various responses to ethnic difference in socio-political organization and confronts the complex nature of potentially changing ethnic identities and relations. Newbury, Catherine. (1998). Ethnicity and the politics of history in Rwanda. Africa Today, 45 (1), 7-24. This article focuses on the various viewpoints of scholars about ethnicity and ethnic relations throughout Rwandan history.

This is combined with a study of ethnic conflict and political process. Pre-colonial ethnic relations, as well as a comparison of ethnic conflict in the 1950s and 1990s, are examined. The author argues that politics and state policies should be viewed as critical elements in understanding the Modeling Annotated Essay ethnic strife which has resulted in imperialism, Rwanda. Uvin, Peter. (1999). Ethnicity and power in Burundi and Rwanda: Different paths to mass violence. Comparative Politics, 31 (3), 253-271.

This article compares ethnic conflict, state politics, and historical process in Burundi and Rwanda. It argues against conventional scholarship that considers the two nation's ethnic conflicts almost identical. It also examines the factors that led people to partake in mass killings, addressing issues of letter nephew, prejudice, fear, revenge, and what is new, manipulation by authorities. It is also a fascinating study of the links between ethnicity and post-colonial state power. DikksĚter, Frank. (Ed.). And Career Choices? (1997). The Construction of racial identity in China and Japan. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. The book is divided into two parts, one focusing on racial issues in China and the other on those in Japan. Although each part includes a brief account of historical roots of racial categories, the discussion focuses primarily on what, more modern discourses of race and ethnicity beginning the late 19th century. The editor does not compare the countries explicitly; their historical and political connection inevitably juxtaposes the uniqueness and similarities between two situations.

One similarity that emerges clearly from both countries is and career choices social construction of what is new, racial boundaries based on the discourse of on Why Should, blood affinity. The book illustrates the fluidity of racial construction responding to the change in political hegemony. Harell, Stevan. (Ed.). (1995). Cultural encounters on China's ethnic frontiers. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. This book includes numerous essays on is new imperialism, historical and historiographical views of advantages of wireless, race and ethnicity in China. The primary focus is on relationships between the ethnically and ideologically dominant group and peripheral ethnic groups. What Imperialism? A variety of civilizing projects are examined, in which the dominant group has sought to transmit their identity of perceived superiority onto the peripheral peoples. The reactions and effects of both the peripheral peoples and central power agents are examined. Central to the book is how ethnicity, race, and ideology are utilized in hegemonic contexts, as well as the resulting ethnogenesis of peripheral groups responding with a heightened sense of ethnic identity.

Robb, Peter. (Ed.) (1998). The Concept of race in South Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Min, Pyong Gap. (1992). A Comparison of the Korean minorities in China and Japan. International Migration Review, 26 (1), 4-21.

This article compares Korean minority communities in both China and Japan. It examines a number of factors impacting upon each community, including state politics, contexts of migration, and relations with Korea. In China, the of wireless author argues, Koreans have retained a high level of ethnic identity and autonomy. In Japan, however, they have lost much of their ethnic identity due to Japan's discrimination and assimilation policies and ideology. This article demonstrates that it is simplistic to believe ethnic prejudice and discrimination result simply from is new, physical and cultural differences.

They depend on political and social policies, perceptions, and actions. CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARRIBEAN. Grandin, Greg. (2000). The Blood of Guatemala: A History of race and to my nephew, nation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Click here to read the review of this book from the Reviews of Resources section of what, this issue. To come back to this page, use the [back] option on your internet browser menu. Lai, Walton Look. (1997).

The Chinese in the West Indies, 1806-1950: A Documentary history. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. This history of Chinese Diaspora in West Indies explores Chinese migration to the West Indies, focusing on the period between 1806 and 1995. The book provides a comprehensive documentation of Chinese settlement in the Spanish-speaking, demographically diverse Caribbean countries. The appendix includes interesting biographies of prominent Chinese-Caribbean families who became incorporated into of the following true atoms 14n, and 15n?, the fabric of the society. Premdas, Ralph. (Ed.) (1993). The enigma of ethnicity: An analysis of race in what is new, the Caribbean and world. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. This edited volume begins with two theoretical essays examining the Cities: Annotated Bibliography example concepts of race and what imperialism, ethnicity and various models of ethnic conflicts, one by the editor and the other by Essay on Why Genetically Modified Should, M. G. Smith. The following 7 chapters provide concise, yet informative, accounts of race and ethnic issues in various Caribbean countriesSuriname, Haiti, Trinidad, Guyana, French West Indies followed by another 5 chapters focusing on countries in the rest of the world.

Editor makes no claim that countries covered in this book represent the Caribbean region or the world. Sarduy, Pedro Perez and Stubbs, Jean. (Eds.). (2000). Afro-Cuban voices: On Race and identity in what, contemporary Cuba. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press. Torres, Arlene and Whitten, N. E. Essay Genetically Should Not Be In Food? (Eds.). (1998). Blackness in Latin America and the Caribbean: Social dynamics and what, cultural transformation, Volume I and II. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. This is Organism in Food a substantial collection of essays related to the black experience in the Diaspora. What Is New? The essays focus primarily on racial ideology, conceptualization, and development of black identity, related to how these factors affect social structure. A variety of to my nephew, situations are examined in which hierarchical classifications are constructed aligning lower class and status with blackness. Despite discrimination and marginalization, blackness and black culture also become central to is new imperialism ethnic identity, resistance, and rebellion.

The book demonstrates the vitality and and disadvantages of wireless, variety of the black Diaspora experience and shows how history is is new impacted by culture. Nutini, Hugo G. (1997). Class and ethnicity in Mexico: Somatic and racial considerations. Essay On Why Genetically Modified Organism Should? Ethnology, 36 (3), 227-238. This article traces the history of racial categorization in Mexico from the 16th century when it was framed by what is new, the colonial elites. Subsequently, racial categories based on phenotypes become associated with different cultural attributes. Currently, cultural and phenotype attributes are disguised or embellished to obtain social mobility. Overall, the article demonstrates that social stratification is which of the is not atoms 14n, based on racial phenotypes and perceived cultural traits and that there is a large correlation between race and class in Mexico.

Haug, Sarah W. (1998). Ethnicity and ethnically mixed identity in Belize: A study of primary school-age children. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (1), 44-67. The article explores the discrepancy between the notion of ethnicity that the Belizean national curriculum teaches in primary schools and what is new, primary school-age children's perceptions of their ethnicity. This ethnographic study was conducted in a small town where much ethnic mixing takes place. While the curriculum neatly divides the national population into five major groups, the children' voices reveal that identifying with a singular ethnic category is not easy. Dragunskii, Denis V. (1995).

Imposed ethnicity. And Acquisition? Russian Social Science Review, 36 (2), 71-82. This article discusses the ethnic categorization and marginalization central to the Soviet Union's state building ideology. As economic and political ideology of the Soviet Union later declined, its breakup was not led by ideological conflict but by ethno-territorial conflict. Conflict tensions are divided primarily on ethnic lines as a result of the Soviet Union's own ethnic policies and categorizations. Gheorghe, Nicolae. (1991). What Is New? Roma-Gypsy ethnicity in Eastern Europe.

Social Research, 58 (4), 829-844. This article is an insightful introduction to the social history of Roma peoples as well as the discrimination often encountered by the people. It is also a study of on Why Organism, how the Roma are perceived in modern nation-states and throughout various historic eras. Roots of Roma prejudice and stereotypical images of Roma are also discussed. Velliste, Trivimi. (1995). Ethnic issues in imperialism, Estonia: A personal view. World Affairs, 157 (3), 137-141. This article provides an exceptional discussion of the process of Russification in Estonia, which began in the 1880s. It describes an ethnic hierarchy socially constructed and implemented through population transfer in order to perpetuate the domination of career and career choices, Russian ethnicity and identity. What Is New Imperialism? Current frameworks are also addressed, focusing upon how historical relations impact upon today.

Li, Peter S. And Career? (Ed.). (1999). Race and what, ethnic relations in Canada. Oxford: Oxford University Press. This book mixes theoretical discussions of race and and acquisition, ethnicity with specific racial/ethnic issues of Canada. What Imperialism? The wide ranges of issues--policies and perspectives--are concerned with aboriginal people to Essay on Why Genetically Modified Should in Food current immigrants. Woman's issues are minimally incorporated at the end of the what is new imperialism book in a plea for a new approach to the study of and career, race and ethnicity, in which race is examined as an intersection of gender and class. Those who are looking for perspectives and voices of minorities may be disappointed.

Cowlishaw, Gillian. (1999). Rednecks, eggheads, and blackfellas: A Study of racial power and intimacy in Australia. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Spoonley, Paul. (1993). What? Racism and ethnicity. Essay Modified Organism? Oxford: Oxford University Press. The author explores the issues of racism and ethnicity in contemporary New Zealand, focusing on, but not limited to, Maori and Pakeha.

Maori is a broad category of aborigines and Pakeha refers to what New Zealand-born Europeans whose experiences have been formed as a result of the of wireless dominant group of the country but who do not have a strong affiliation with a homeland elsewhere. He included Jews in his account of ethnicity in New Zealand although the ethnicity of other new immigrants is obviously absent in his discussion. The author treats the minorities not as passive victims of imperialism, racism but as active agents of their affairs although they are very much dependent upon the the politics of the Smart Annotated Essay example mainstream society. The chapter on what is new, policy and practice offers insight on how the shift of the state policy toward decentralization affects ethnic equity in the country. De la Candena, Marisol. (2000). Indigenous mestizos: The Politics of race and culture in Cusco, Peru, 1919-1991. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Using Cusco, Peru as example, the author examines how racial discourse is used in the development of a national ideology. She argues that the letter central discourse defining social hierarchy and marginalization focuses on cultural difference rather than racial difference. The author traces the history of this development through the 20th century in what is new, Cusco, focusing on a process of de-Indianization whereby even indigenous people who gain Westernized education and jobs consider themselves mestizo despite their racial realities. Hanchard, Michael G. (1994).

Orpheus and power: The Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paolo, Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. This book examines the depth of racial politics in Brazil and which following is not, documents Afro-Brazilian activitists' struggles to bring about social justice for black Brazilians, focusing on the time period between 1945 and 1988. The social myth of racial democracy--a belief that there is no injustice imposed upon people on the basis of racial differences--created an is new obstacle for the activists to raise social consciousness of racial inequality despite the Modified Not Be fact that the social reality reveals apparent gaps among different racial groups. Reichmann, Rebecca (Ed.). (1999). Race in is new, contemporary Brazil: From indifference to inequality. State College, PA: Penn State University Press. This edited volume disputes the and career myth of racial democracy in Brazil by providing various forms of explicit and implicit inequality permeating the socio-economic structure of the society. The first two introductory essays provide an excellent overview of social construction of racial categories in Brazil. It is also notable that the what majority of the essays are written by native Brazilian scholars.

Essays included in this book address inequality between white Brazilians and Afro-Brazilians (pretos) in educational opportunity, income level, labor market, and criminal justice. And Career? Inequality also intensifies when the what gender factor is added. Several essays cover gender issues in conjunction with race and of the following is not true atoms 13n, and 15n?, class. Stam, Robert (1997). Tropical multiculturalism: A comparative history of race in Brazilian cinema and culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. This informative and engaging book exemplifies a new approach to the study of race and ethnicity. Offering films as the window to the ethno-racial reality of Brazil, the author examines the evolution of the reality depicted in is new imperialism, the Brazilian cinema of different eras. On Why Genetically Organism Should? The portrayals and roles of Afro-Brazilians and Indians reflect the change in the socio-political view of the is new minorities. The author also embraced the gender factor in his discussion. A helpful comparison between the nephew U. S. and Brazilian history juxtaposes similarities and differences in the racial policies and the legacy of slavery.

Twine, France W. (1998). Racism in a racial democracy: The maintenance of white supremacy in Brazil. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Wade, Peter. (1995). Blackness and race mixture: The Dynamics of racial identity in Colombia. What Is New Imperialism? Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Focusing on black experience in Colombia, particularly the Choco region, this book reveals the rift between the nation's official policy of pluralism and the actual experience and realities for Afro-Colombians. The nation's racial hierarchy, links between race and class, and racial identity are examined in light of the Modeling Cities: Annotated Bibliography Choco's development as a primarily black region. Arocha, Jaime. (1998). Inclusion of Afro-Colombians: Unreachable national goal? Latin American Perspectives, 25 (3), 70-89. The author explains the origin of recent ethnic struggles between the black and Indian people as Columbia undergoes transformation from monoethnicity to multiethnicity.

This transformation is is new not a result of and career, demographic change but of the legislative change. The new constitution of 1991 allowed Colombians to exercise their citizenship by displaying cultural diversity rather than by concealing it as required by the previous political charter (p.70). What Is New? The legal recognition of which of the following is not true for the 14n, and 15n?, multiethnicity also allows minority groups to claim their ancestral land. Is New Imperialism? This legal change, complicated by the governments economic development in the region concentrated by Afro-Colombians and Indians, aggravates ethnic asymmetries that, in turn, erode nonviolent coexistence among these people according to the author. This article provides especially helpful information on the history of slave trading of Africans and their resistance to the enslaved situation. Ghai, Yesh. (Ed.) (2000).

Autonomy and Essay on Why Genetically Should in Food, ethnicity: Negotiating competing claims in multi-ethnic states. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Unander, D. (2000). Shattering the myth of race: Genetic realities and biblical truth. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.