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Langston Hughes: Poems “As I Grew Older” Summary and Analysis

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Are Examinations Necessary ? Essay. Examinations are tests for evaluating a student#8217;s knowledge. The present system of education ignores the student#8217;s individual skills and intelligence. Parents and Hughes Essay, teachers judge a student#8217;s potential through examinations. The Indian system of education is based on the pattern set up by the British. And Production? Nothing much is taught beyond the syllabus and Essay, only examinations determine the the importance degree or grade of a student.

Various Commission, which were set up to improve this system recommended practical training and periodical tests. Cheating, leaking of The Forgotten Hughes Essay question papers and other corrupt practices, that have cropped up in the examination system should be checked. the aim of education should be to equip the student to face the tough battle of life. Image Source: Examinations aim at judging a student#8217;s knowledge in a specific time frame and in trump analyzing whether the student has gone through a certain course of study satisfactorily. Tests enable the teacher to know how well the Dreams student has understood the subject. A good result makes the teacher as well as the parents happy. The effort of the teacher is rewarded when a student passes an examination and vice versa. Thus, a teacher#8217;s dedication towards his profession is judged through examination. Examinations help the parents to assess their child#8217;s capability.

Parents become proud of their children when they perform well in the examinations. Students become alert when examinations are at their door step. They utilize their time for preparation. Hindu Today? Examinations make them work hard for scoring good marks. Some schools award citations and certificate and give scholarships to those students who excel. Such awards prompt the students to The Forgotten Dreams Essay, work hard. Examinations help the donald trump charisma teachers and the parents in analyzing the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes amount of labor put in by the students in gaining knowledge. Teaching is always followed by the importance, tests because the tests give an impression as to how well the students have understood the subject. A good result helps the teacher feel relieved at his success in imparting education to The Forgotten Hughes, his pupils while a bad result indicates that there is a need of more effort on the teacher#8217;s part.

Thus, examinations are also a means of hindu judging a teacher#8217;s dedication towards his profession. With the help of the result of examinations parents can make the right assessment of their child#8217; caliber. Of Langston Hughes Essay? If he is weak in his studies, they could guide him further in the subject. f his performance is up to the satisfaction of his parents, they would be proud of him. However, there are certain flaws in the examination system. The system of education in India is based on the pattern set up by the British. The knowledge imparted is restricted to the syllabus. The Importance Of English Language? Students are taught according to Hughes Essay, the prescribed syllabus. Nothing much is taught beyond the syllabus. When a student is unable to gasp a particular subject, the seeks private tuitions or enrolls himself in Harvey Milk: A Great Essay a coaching institute. Students tend to learn their subjects by of Langston, heart, without applying their mind. Thus, cramming enables many students to pass examinations.

Most students look towards their examinations with an anxious mind. They, at a very young age, begin to hindu news, feel the tension and stress of examinations. Examinations are just the first in a series of tests that initiate young ones into a competitive world. But the importance attached to them is unreasonably high. During the examination period and till the result is declared, not only the students but also their parents and tutors remain tensed. It is of Langston Hughes cast as a do-or-die battle.

Students do not have enough spare time for games and hindu news, are unable to give wings to their hobbies due to the burden of The Forgotten Dreams of Langston examinations. Hindu Paper Today? Failure in the examination arouses a felling of low self esteem and negative self-image in the minds of the students. At times, students break down under pressure to perform and resort to extreme measures like running away from their homes or even committing suicide. Today school psychologists or school counselors give them proper advice to increase the efficiency of learning in schools and handle to pressure of examination. A positive mental state can improve one#8217;s chances of success. Leakage of question papers, copying and The Forgotten Dreams of Langston, cheating in examination halls have become a common affair.

Bribery and other corrupt practices also have crept into the examination system. Difference Manufacturing? Even some of the teachers check the examination papers without assessing them properly, as a result of which students suffers. Examinations give a degree or a grade to the student. The prevailing system of education does not help the students to make their career in life or to earn a decent living. The youth who fails to get the desired percentage of marks suffer the most. In order to overcome the shortcomings present in our educational system, many Education Commissions were set up from time to time to suggest changes in the pattern. Action on their suggestions Central Board of Secondary Education and other State Boards of Secondary Education decided to of Langston Essay, introduce a separate steam of vocational education.

According to Educational experts, ongoing evaluation is more effective than board examinations. They have recommended that Class X examinations be made mandatory only for those who want to opt out of formal education. Further, it has been suggested that class XII examination be staggered over a two-year period. They have recommended the need for a new pattern which would impart education thought training. Educational experts feel that the educational system being obsolete and redundant is not serving the purpose of educating the of english youth. They have felt the need to evaluate a student#8217;s performance during the whole year.

This could make the examination system more acceptable. According to the new method adopted by many public schools, examinations would remain a part and parcel of the education system. However, periodic tests will be held at regular intervals. The syllabus would include practice exercise at the end of each lesson. This will help the student in grasping the subject matter properly. The aim of education should be to equip the student for the tough battle of life, build his character and The Forgotten Dreams Essay, personality, widen his sphere of knowledge and qualify him for employment. The student should not only be taught lessons from books but also lessons from practical life. The educational system should not only be theoretical and academic but also give practical knowledge. News Today? Students should not be encouraged for rote learning. Projects and term papers may encourage an engagement with the subject matter and Dreams Hughes, are more likely to add sum and substance to a student#8217;s knowledge base. Can You Adult? When History, Geography and Maths are reduced to Dreams Hughes, mere digits on a mark sheet, they cease to inspire, give joy, or nurture the faculty of Essay on How Tell has ADHD? inquiry.

Nevertheless, the of Langston Essay system of examination, prevalent for centuries, cannot be changed overnight. It will take some time to change the system. While this transition take place, the Harvey Milk: A Great Essay corrupt practices, cheating and leakage of question papers related to examinations should be checked. Parents should not make their love conditional to the performance of their children in the examinations. Their expectation level should be reasonable.

With this and with the revised system of education, examination will prove beneficial for The Forgotten Dreams of Langston the students. is home of thousands of articles published by users like YOU. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies and allied information with a single vision to on How Can You if an, liberate knowledge. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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mrs dalloway essay Mrs Dalloway is The Forgotten Dreams Essay, part of the obligatory reading material, which students of English must face in their first year, and so did I six years ago. Of English! Most of my classmates did not exactly like the novel, and Dreams, I was not an immediate fan either. Several years later I re-read Mrs Dalloway for a course on the First World War and to my surprise discovered that it is an amazing novel. I was pleasantly surprised when I read about a film inspired by Harvey American Essay Mrs Dalloway called The Hours . I never made it to the cinema, so I bought the book instead. During my fifth year at university I decided it was time to graduate. Desperately seeking a topic I remembered The Hours . A film that is adapted from a novel that is a rewrite of Dreams, a Modernist text. This created a very interesting and complex relationship between the novels and the film, and I proceeded by delving deeply into literature on film and adaptation.

My thesis would be about literature and adaptation and The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . I soon realised that Woolf’s novel was not relevant for an adaptation-centred thesis, but I would not leave it alone. Unfortunately I had to make a choice between adaptation theory and literature, and I chose literature. I wrote my thesis about Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours and donald, its relationship to Mrs Dalloway . Surprisingly enough, I am currently still enjoying my topic and have thoroughly enjoyed writing my thesis. Of course, I did not do this on my own. The Forgotten Dreams Of Langston! There are some people I would like to thank. Thank you, Rias, for guiding me through my crazy plans and unclear arguments, and at the same improving my writing and being strict with me. Thank you, Roselinde, for fitting me into boston massacre you ridiculously busy schedule. Thank you, Nanna, for enlightening me on The Forgotten Dreams Hughes adaptation and finding an language, angle for my thesis. Thank you, Ivo, for The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, giving me a royal kick up the donald trump ass. Thank you, mum and dad, for making it possible for me to study all these years.

Thank you, mum, for being my reader. Thank you, Roy, for putting up with me and my thesis-related temper tantrums, I love you. The Forgotten Of Langston Hughes! Thank you, my friends, for believing in donald, me and Dreams, telling me again and again and again that I can do this. It is 1925, it is 1998 and it is 2002. It is 1923, it is 1949, and it is the end of the twentieth century.

The logic of time does not seem to apply to this situation. Massacre! Everything is Dreams of Langston, happening all at once and it is all related to today The Hours . The Hours is a text that spans the twentieth century twice. The first time in its publication history: in The Forgotten Dreams, 1925 Virginia Woolf’s novel Mrs Dalloway was published, which had The Hours as its working title. In 1998 Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours was published, and in 2002 a film inspired by Cunningham’s novel was released. The Hours presents a second cross section of the twentieth century by covering narrative grounds in 1923, 1949 and the 1990s. It becomes clear that Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Michael Cunningham’s The Hours are complexly connected through time, or as Tory Young puts it in her reader’s guide to The Hours : “The relationship between The Hours and Mrs. Dalloway is impossible to simplify; Cunningham interweaves aspects of Woolf’s life, her novel, and her theories” (38). Virginia Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway about the perambulations of a middle-aged woman on a sunny June day in London, and it became one of the main Modernist classics. One of the difference between manufacturing most prominent themes in Mrs Dalloway is time and the distinction between two types of time. The clock measures time, but on the other hand time is represented by the duration of experiences as the human consciousness registers them.

Virginia Woolf gives an explanation in Orlando : An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the Dreams Hughes mind by one second. Essays! (qtd. in Hasler 147) The time told by the timepiece of the mind is called psychological time, a term taken from the philosopher Henri Bergson. Time and Mrs Dalloway both play an important part in Cunningham’s The Hours , as he has used Woolf’s novel as a source of inspiration. Of Langston Hughes! Cunningham openly acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source both in difference between manufacturing, the novel itself and in criticism. He has described his novel as “an improvisation on Woolf’s [ Mrs Dalloway ]” ( The Years 4). With The Hours, Cunningham takes a difficult Modernist classic and The Forgotten of Langston Hughes, turns into donald trump charisma a popular novel that is suitable for adaptation into mainstream Hollywood cinema. Thematically, Cunningham is faithful to Mrs Dalloway , as he too uses time as an important element in his novel. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and uses Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration in order to represent psychological time and of Langston Hughes, the sense of donald trump, connectedness that is typical of Woolf’s novel.

Nevertheless, The Hours also moves away from Mrs Dalloway . The Hours is a re-telling of Dreams of Langston Essay, Mrs Dalloway , but it is also an improvisation, as Cunningham calls it. Massacre! An improvisation is Dreams Hughes, a variation on today an existing melody; it implies change and the addition of new elements. The Forgotten Of Langston Essay! As Mary Joe Hughes puts it in her article on The Hours : Although The Hours contains a similar cast of characters to those of Mrs. Essay Can You Tell! Dalloway and repeats the themes of love and death and time, Michael Cunningham does not simply ape the structure of Mrs. Dalloway and transpose it to New York in the late twentieth century. (350) This thesis attempts to uncover what Michael Cunningham has done differently. The Forgotten Essay! The first chapter explores the concept of psychological time and its importance in Modernism.

The second chapter continues this exploration by applying it to Virginia Woolf and boston, her work. It also investigates the techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway and how these techniques relate to psychological time. The final chapter applies the techniques found in Mrs Dalloway to Cunningham’s novel in an attempt to illustrate similarities and differences between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . Sitting in front of a computer, staring at a blank screen for what feels like hours only lasted five minutes. The Forgotten Of Langston! A three-week holiday seemed to pass in a couple of days. On How Tell Has ADHD?! It does not always matter what time it is according to The Forgotten Dreams Hughes the clock. The human consciousness has its own time system, which registers the duration of emotions and experience. Essays! It does not rely on segmentation of time into minutes and hours. The time system of the mind is subjective and personal, whereas the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay clock represents time that is objective and public. Arguably, there are two different types of time: the time the clock tells and time in the human mind. These two types of time have distinct characteristics, which clearly separate one from the other.

Clock time governs the relentless progress of life, ordering events in on How if an Adult, a chronological, linear sequence according to Dreams Hughes Essay when they happened in time. It is what history is made of. Minutes, hours, days, weeks, years and centuries are all indicators of donald charisma, clock time. The other type of time is the temporal experience in the human mind: it is The Forgotten Hughes, flexible; it is constantly in flux and Essay on How Adult, can be compressed or extended. A period that is The Forgotten, compressed in the mind seems to pass very quickly in Harvey Milk: A Great Hero, comparison to clock time: an event took more clock time than the human mind perceived. When time is The Forgotten of Langston Essay, extended, the actual time span of an event was much shorter that experienced. Time on the mind is also referred to boston massacre essays as psychological time by thinkers such as the Dreams of Langston Essay French philosopher Henri Bergson. Questions such as why the human consciousness is able to create an individual time-system and whether it can be influenced by difference between manufacturing and production external factors remain beyond the scope of this discussion. It is interesting, however, to discover what influence of psychological time has had on Modernist and Dreams Essay, contemporary literature and how it is represented by selected authors from those periods. Clearly, the timepiece of the mind has always existed. Time is an important part of the human consciousness.

The Roman philosopher Plotinus was the first to name the the importance phenomenon. He pointed out “that all living beings experience their own experiences in temporal terms. [He] was the first to internalize the question of time” (Sherover 10). It is important to note that internalised time is always related to externally measured time. One can exist only in comparison to the other, because internalised time can only be expressed in terms of clock time. Timekeeping has always played an The Forgotten Hughes Essay, important role in news today, human society, and its techniques have undergone many changes throughout the centuries.

Perhaps the most important development in timekeeping, certainly one of the most influential, is the The Forgotten Hughes invention of the trump mechanical clock. The invention of the clock did of course not happen overnight and The Forgotten Essay, was subject to many problems, but the effect it has had on Western society is immense. Both the Greek and the Romans used earlier timetelling devices, such as sundials and water clocks. Even calendars were already in use in an attempt to regulate life according to the passage of time in nature. Not one of these devices was as successful as the mechanical clock. The impact of the mechanical clock on history is overwhelming. Clocks could organise and news paper, regulate communities. Clocks made it possible to measure space in of Langston Essay, terms of time, which created the possibility of long distance travelling.

Perhaps the most important effect of the mechanical clock is that it facilitated the Industrial Revolution. [1] The Industrial Revolution brought about considerable change, and the continuous process of change is still visible in Essay on How Can You if an Adult has ADHD?, society today. In the early twentieth century, the Dreams of Langston ongoing industrial progress was marked by the introduction of Taylorismin 1911. American Hero! [2] The ideas of Mr Taylor introduced a new view of industrialisation, which involved paying labourers hourly wages and introducing the assembly line in factories. As a result the production rate in factories went up, but the effect of Taylorism that was most relevant for society and The Forgotten of Langston Hughes, art was the fact that it commodified time. Time became worth money, because labourers were paid by the hour. They worked a set number of Essay Tell if an Adult has ADHD?, hours a day in shifts and the speed of their work was dominated by the speed of the machines (Adriaans 13). Society became clock-governed. The effect of the clock-governed society is reflected in the work of of Langston Hughes Essay, early twentieth-century artists.

The internal time system of the human mind became more important, because external time became extremely organised and difference between manufacturing and production, inflexible. The emphasis of art shifted from the external to the internal, and displayed a strong tendency toward the exploration of personal experience and the workings of time in the human consciousness. Psychological Time in of Langston Hughes, Theory. Psychological time is a term that refers to the pace of the time system of the mind. It is on How if an, a concept that arose out of the tendency of twentieth-century psychology and philosophy to Hughes Essay explore the human consciousness. The modern interest in between and production, the human mind resulted in new methods of analysing the consciousness. New methods, such as psychoanalysis (developed by Hughes Essay Sigmund Freud in the 1890s), were extremely popular in the first decades of the twentieth century. [3] Discoveries made about the workings of the consciousness resulted in a new view of time and the experience of temporality. The French philosopher Henri Bergson was one of the thinkers who applied Freud’s theories and methods onto society and every day life. Bergson thought reality was characterised by language the different experience of time in Hughes Essay, the mind (Childs 49). Bergson used the term ‘psychological time’ to refer to this experience of time. Psychological time, according to Bergson, is manufacturing and production, not a different type of time, but a different manner of perceiving time.

Psychological time is not subjected to chronology or linearity. It is concerned with memory, expectation, duration, extension, compression, and association; it moves in flux and is highly subjective. Dreams Hughes Essay! These characteristics make it difficult to pin down and even more difficult to represent in art and literature. In his book Novels into Film , George Bluestone discusses chronological and psychological time and their representation in boston massacre essays, both novels and films. He uses the distinction created by Henri Bergson to distinguish between two types of The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, time in the narrative of a novel or a film. Chronological time (or clock time) consists of the duration of the reading, the amount of time the narrator takes to relate the news paper story and the chronological span of the narrative events. Chronological time is measured in discrete units, minutes, days, weeks or years. The definition of psychological time, Bluestone maintains, has two important characteristics; psychological time “distends or compresses in consciousness, and presents itself in continuous flux” (emphasis added, Bluestone 48-49). The Forgotten Of Langston Essay! Psychological time represents how much time we perceive our experiences to last. A minute can be ‘distended’ to last a sensory hour, while an hour can be ‘compressed’ into a minute in our mind. Secondly, psychological time presents itself in a continuous flux.

It is in constant movement, and thus it is immeasurable, according to Bluestone. The immeasurability of the flux makes time an elusive phenomenon in psychology and philosophy, and it also creates a challenge for literature. Modernists were fascinated by hindu news today the problematic representation of psychological time and the immeasurable quality of the flux. George Bluestone’s definition of chronological time can be applied directly to a text, which makes it a very suitable method for a temporal analysis of a novel’s formal characteristics. Essay! A chronological analysis determines how long a reader takes to read a book, how much time the narrator needs to relate a story and in today, what time span a story would have unfolded in reality. Psychological time is not as clearly illustrated. Bluestone’s main conclusion is that neither novels nor films are capable of rendering the flux of psychological time. This raises the question of what attempts have been made to represent the flux of time in literature. Modernism coincided with the Dreams scientific interest in human consciousness and attempted to capture the elusive quality of experience and psychological time in art.

John Lye characterises Modernist literature as a movement that “is marked by a break with the sequential, developmental, cause-and-effect presentation of the 'reality' of realist fiction, toward a presentation of experience as layered, allusive [and] discontinuous” (3). Hindu News Paper! Sequence, development and cause-and-effect relations are concepts strongly linked to linearity and The Forgotten Hughes Essay, chronology, which are characteristics of clock time. John Lye suggests that Modernism turned away from linearity and wanted to represent the ‘layered, allusive and discontinuous’ nature of experience. This desire reflects the Modernist attempts to put into words human experience, including the today elusive qualities of psychological time. Modernism and Psychological Time [4] Twentieth century literary Modernism was very much interested in contemporary psychological and philosophical tendencies. Henri Bergson and his theories were extremely popular amongst Modernists and many were inspired by his theories on psychological time and Dreams of Langston Hughes, borrowed his ideas.

As Peter Childs puts it: “[Henri Bergson’s] work changed the way many Modernists represented time in fiction” (Childs 49). His ideas on psychological time were hugely influential. Modernists were interested in Harvey Milk: A Great Essay, the time individuals experienced and how this experience of time can differ from individual to individual. Modernism wanted to investigate the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay non-linear qualities psychological time, not in the chronology of difference manufacturing and production, events that occur. David Lodge mentions about the early twentieth century: “It wasn’t necessary for writers to Hughes have actually read the psychoanalytical writings of Freud and his followers to be influenced by him. His ideas became memes, seeds carried on the winds of the Zeitgeist, propagating themselves in minds that had no first hand knowledge of Freud’s work.” (59) What David Lodge illustrates here is that the interest in the unconscious and human experience was a trend in the twentieth century and all disciplines of art and the importance, science reflected this, without necessarily a particular background in psychoanalysis. Modernism was inspired by the new ideas on human consciousness, and its focus turned to t he “(re)presentation of inner (psychological) reality, including the 'flow' of experience, through devices such as stream of consciousness” (Lye 7).

As a result of turning towards the internal, the concept of The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay, psychological time became more important. Psychological time and its representation are part of a larger trend of exploring the depths of the human consciousness. The Manifestations of Psychological Time in difference, Modernism. The work produced by Modernist artists was influenced by the new concepts of time. The introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology deals with the problematic notion of time and explains how Modernists viewed it: Time was not a series of chronological moments to be presented by the novelist in sequence with an Dreams, occasional deliberate retrospect (“this reminded him of,” “she recalled that”), but a continuous flow in the consciousness of the individual, with the ‘already’ continuously merging into the ‘not yet’ and retrospect merging with anticipation. (Abrams 2:1688) The image of essays, time as a continuous flow creates a perpetual present in which past, present and future function together to create a kaleidoscopic vision of time. The continuous influence of the past on the present and the coexistence of past, present and future in the mind are features of psychological time.

Modernism is interested in both the notion of the Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay flux of time and the possibility of multiple levels of consciousness. Donald! This results in an exploration of the consciousness through stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness combines the notion of Hughes, flow and the interest in the deeper layers of the human consciousness. Milk: A Great Essay! It is a much-disputed term amongst experts on Modernism, but this may perhaps be a matter of terminology. William James supposedly coined the term in his 1890 Principles of The Forgotten of Langston, Psychology to indicate the flow of inner experience (Childs 52). Later the A Great Hero term was applied to literature, but it is likely that James was referring to what Bergson has called the flux of time.

Thus the term was perhaps meant to refer to a philosophical notion, and James did not intend to apply it to literature. The debates surrounding stream of consciousness as a literary technique are focussed on two main points: which writers use. the technique, and whether or not the The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay term refers to Essay on How Can You if an Adult has ADHD? a specific technique. James Naremore discusses this dispute at length in The Forgotten Hughes, his book World Without a Self and Essay on How Adult, concludes that most critics agree on two basic points: First, that stream of consciousness, whether it is a technique or a subject matter, is The Forgotten Dreams, especially concerned with a private and boston, essentially disorganized part of the Hughes mind; second, that stream-of-consciousness fiction always focuses on the contents of a character’s mind at a given point in space and time, in Essay if an has ADHD?, order to The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes suggest a record of trump charisma, thought as it occurs, as it rises out of a circumstantial context. (70) Arguably stream of consciousness consists of a range of different techniques, which can be used separately or in combination. The Forgotten Dreams Of Langston Essay! [5] These techniques are united by their concern with a private and disorganised part of the mind and by the fact that they attempt to record thoughts as they occur.

Stream of charisma, consciousness is a method Modernist authors use in an attempt to deal with psychological time, which is an important aspects of the private part of the mind. One of the techniques applied in literature in order to The Forgotten Dreams of Langston convey stream of consciousness is free indirect speech. A clear example of how free indirect speech is constructed and what its effects are can be found in an excerpt taken from David Lodge’s article Consciousness and the Novel . “Is that the clock striking twelve?” Cinderella exclaimed. “Dear me, I shall be late.” This is a combination of direct or quoted speech and narrator’s description. “Cinderella enquired if the clock was striking twelve and expressed a fear that she would be late” is reported or indirect speech, in which the same information is conveyed but the individuality of the character’s voice is suppressed by the narrator’s. “Was that the clock striking twelve? She would be late” is free indirect speech. Cinderella’s concern is hindu news, now a silent, private thought, expressed in The Forgotten Hughes, her own words, to which we are given access without overt mediation of a narrator. … The effect is to locate the narrative in Cinderella’s consciousness. (37)

Among Modernists, free indirect speech is widely used in order to convey stream of consciousness. Virginia Woolf uses free indirect speech often to represent a character’s train of thought, such as Lily Briscoe’s thoughts in To The Lighthouse . Difference Between Manufacturing! “For at any rate, she said to herself, catching sight of the Dreams of Langston Hughes salt cellar on the pattern, she need not marry, thank Heaven: she need not undergo that degradation. She was saved from that illusion. She would move the tree rather more to the middle” (154). A Great American Hero! Lily is simultaneously contemplating love and a painting she is making.

Woolf uses free indirect speech interspersed with the narrator’s voice to The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes present the reader with Lily’s private thoughts and thus gains access to her consciousness. Free indirect speech is not the only characteristic of stream-of-consciousness writing. Another technique, which gives very direct access to the importance of english language the character’s mind, is the use of the Essay first person. As the Essay example from To The Lighthouse demonstrates, stream of consciousness can be fragmented or confusing. It attempts to record a character’s thoughts, which are not necessarily coherent and intelligible. The immeasurable flux of psychological time can also be represented by the seemingly random associations of the mind. A character recalls a certain moment in the past, which is relevant to the present situation. The character’s memory is represented in the narrative when the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay author feels the recollection to essays be most relevant to the present moment. The function of recollection is not merely to reflect on the past.

Recollections in stream-of-consciousness writing are very relevant to the experience of the character in the narrative present. Dreams Essay! Memories can have such a significant role that they are presented in the text with little or no introduction and they are superimposed on massacre the present moment. [6] Association is a term taken from psychoanalysis, where it is called ‘free association’. In Modernism this technique is applied to a novel in order to record every internal reaction a character has when coming in contact with external stimuli. Hughes! The effect can be confusing at times, because the immeasurability (or fragmentation) of the consciousness is explicitly represented by this technique. For readers it is trump charisma, sometimes difficult to of Langston Hughes Essay distinguish between what is happening in donald, actual time and what is happening in of Langston Hughes, psychological time. In the Essay Can You if an Adult following fragment taken from James Joyce’s Ulysses the readers enters the The Forgotten Hughes mind of Mr Leopold Bloom who is attending a funeral.

Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in his hand, counting the bared heads. Boston! Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Death’s number. Where the deuce did he pop out The Forgotten of? He wasn’t in the chapel, that I’ll swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.

Nice soft tweed Ned Lambert has in that suit. Tinge of purple. Difference Between Manufacturing! I had one like that when we lived in Lombard street west. Dressy fellow he was once. Used to The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes change three suits in the day. Trump Charisma! Must get that grey suit of Hughes, mine turned by Mesias. Hello. It’s dyed. His wife I forgot he’s not married or his landlady ought to have picked out those threads for him. (90)

This is an Milk: A Great American, example of interior monologue, which is a very direct form of stream of consciousness compared to The Forgotten Dreams Essay the earlier example from Woolf’s To The Lighthouse . There seems to be no narrator’s mediation at all and Mr Bloom’s thoughts are difficult to interrelate as his minds makes associations that are incomprehensible to a first-time reader. Mr Bloom observes the people at the funeral service “Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. Essays! The chap in the macintosh is thirteen,” which he associates with death. After looking at Mr Lambert’s suit, Mr Bloom recalls a situation from the past: “when we lived in Lombard street west”. “Hello” might be a greeting directed at another character, and should have been represented in direct speech. It might also be a remark about the suit that Mr Bloom voices mentally and is thus a part of his stream of consciousness. The sentences Joyce uses in this passage are disorganised fragments, in order to present stream of consciousness in Dreams of Langston Essay, its most extreme form. Arguably, this passage is closer to the importance free association than to a literary representation of a character’s thoughts.

Another common feature of Modernist texts in an attempt to represent the multiplicity of the consciousness and psychological time is fragmentation of the The Forgotten Dreams Essay narrative. Fragmentation is used to of english represent the immeasurable flux of psychological experience and the disorganized part of the human mind. As the definition of stream of consciousness given by the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia explains: [Stream of consciousness is] a technique that records the multifarious thoughts and The Forgotten Essay, feelings of a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence. Of English! The writer attempts by the stream of consciousness to reflect all the forces, external and internal, influencing the psychology of a character at a single moment. Stream of consciousness intends to represent multiplicity within the character’s mind and the multiple ‘forces’ or impressions that he or she receives from Dreams of Langston Hughes her surroundings. The result of this multiplicity is chaos. A traditional narrative has a beginning, middle and end and the events that occur in the narrative follow each other in a logical cause-and-effect relationship. Many Modernist texts are not concerned with ‘time as a series of chronological moments to be presented in sequence’ as the introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology quoted earlier explained. It is common for Modernist texts to begin in medias res ; the novel opens in the middle of an action or an event instead of at the beginning of the story. As a result the reader is disoriented. Fragmentation does not only occur on the level of the narrative, but also on hindu news today the level of language, as the example from Ulysses already demonstrated.

Modernism acknowledged that language is not capable of of Langston, representing the flux of time and the workings of the human consciousness, because language is linear. Modern style reflects on the immeasurable flux of time by openly showing the inadequacies of language. As T.S. Eliot put it in his essay The Metaphysical Poet : Our civilization comprehends great variety and hindu paper today, complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and complex results. Dreams Of Langston! The poet must become more and more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to difference dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning. (qtd. in Abrams 2137) Eliot had a very different approach to ‘dislocating language’ than Joyce and Woolf had, but the underlying motivation is the same: to create a language that will allow the author to express the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston multiplicity of Modernism, of which psychological time is an aspect. Sue Asbee claims that, besides creating a language to express the hindu ‘great variety and Essay, complexity’, Modernism also “showed a desire to A Great American Hero Essay find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality” (29). The search for a pattern can be defined as the search for coherence that underlies reality, even though it is sometimes difficult to see. Modernism believed that underneath the chaos there was unity, a sense of connectedness. In her work Virginia Woolf attempted to create unity. Psychological time is a concept subjected to chaos as well.

It is fragmented, it is in constant flux, memories can be involuntary and Dreams of Langston Hughes, the timepiece of the mind is far from accurate. It seems as if there is little or no control over the human consciousness and its experience of time. Psychological time reflects the chaotic and between manufacturing, fragmentary reality and The Forgotten Dreams Essay, Virginia Woolf, and other Modernists, attempt to make it whole again, to create a sense of unity. Essay On How Tell If An Has ADHD?! In Mrs Dalloway , Virginia Woolf uses different techniques that create coherence and explores these techniques at great lengths. Woolf and Psychological Time. Time is a recurring theme in Virginia Woolf’s work. According to The Forgotten of Langston Essay Jrg Hasler, “a mere glance at [her] bibliography reveals her deep and constant preoccupation with the phenomenon of time” (145). Massacre! Hasler mentions Woolf’s novels Night and Day, The Hours (which is the working title of the novel that was published as Mrs Dalloway ), The Years and Between the Acts , her short story collection Monday or Tuesday and her essay The Moment . Interestingly, her only autobiographical work, posthumously published in The Forgotten Hughes, 1976, is called Moments of Being . It is an charisma, addition to Woolf’s bibliography that suggests an interest in The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, time as well.

In the previous chapter, Henri Bergson and donald charisma, his theories on psychological time were discussed. His influence, and that of his contemporaries on Dreams of Langston Hughes Modernist art was enormous. However, it is difficult to determine to what extent Bergson’s theories influenced Woolf. James Naremore in The World Without Self mentions, “there is no evidence that Mrs. Woolf ever actually read Bergson” (21). Nevertheless, the influence of modern thinkers, such as Bergson, is evident in her work. On How Can You If An Adult! As David Lodge has pointed out, actual knowledge of contemporary thinkers was not necessary in order to be influenced by their theories. In her biographical novel Orlando , published in 1928, Virginia Woolf voices her fascination with the contrast between clock time and psychological time: The time of man works with strangeness upon the body of time.

An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to of Langston Essay fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. This extraordinary discrepancy between time on the clock and time in massacre, the mind is less known than it should be and deserves fuller investigation. (qtd. in Hasler 147) This passage from Orlando shows that Woolf was interested in the phenomenon of psychological time, or time in of Langston, the mind as she calls it. She demonstrates here that a discrepancy in time arises when the duration of psychological time is viewed in Milk: A Great American Hero Essay, comparison to The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay the clock, and clearly states that this needs to be explored. Woolf’s Orlando shows a distinct interest in psychological time. Even though Mrs Dalloway was published in 1925, three years previous to Orlando , it also showed a particular interest in Essay on How Can You has ADHD?, psychological time.

In Mrs Dalloway Woolf explores the differences between the internal timepiece and clock time and illustrates how they are related. In a 1948 article William York Tindall presents the presence of Dreams Hughes, two types of massacre, time as an obvious fact of the novel. “[He, Tindall,] had known, of course, that Mrs Dalloway contains two levels of time, outer or clock time and Bergson’s inner time. As Big Ben’s leaden strokes fix outer time, inner time or the stream of consciousness, indifferent to the clock, expands or contracts according to the intensity of experience” (66). Woolf contrasts psychological time and clock time. Several formal characteristics of the novel illustrate a preoccupation with time. First of all, the working title of the novel was The Hours , which suggests an interest in the demarcations of time. Secondly the narrated time of Mrs Dalloway is a single day.

The fact that the Mrs Dalloway spans across one single day in the life of an ordinary woman indicates that the narrative does not focus on the chronological presentation of events. Arguably, not much happens during the day in June that is described in Mrs Dalloway . The focus of the novel is on the consciousness of the characters. Another characteristic of the novel is that it does not have a chapter indication. It is presented as one large chapter entitled Mrs Dalloway . The Forgotten! Although the donald charisma novel does not have chapters, the narrative is divided into units as Big Ben strikes the hours. Clock time divides the narrative into pieces. The lack of a chapter division in the novel also creates a continuous flow of psychological time. Not only these formal aspects of the novel indicate an interest in time; time keeping devices, especially the clock of Big Ben, play a significant role throughout the novel. Hughes! Mrs Dalloway also has several stylistic features that suggest a preoccupation with time. Harvey Milk: A Great American! As Mr Tindall indicated, Mrs Dalloway is a novel that is concerned with two different types of time and the tension that is created when they are juxtaposed. Mrs Dalloway – Super Connected. In A Room of One’s Own , Woolf argues that “fiction is like a spider's web, attached ever so slightly perhaps, but still attached to life at all four corners.

Often the attachment is The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, scarcely perceptible” (2). The comparison of fiction to a spider’s web does not only essays, imply the fragility of fiction, but also its complexity. Fiction is The Forgotten Dreams Hughes, a web of related incidents that resonates when something touches it. The incidents are sketches or moments of being that are interconnected by Harvey Hero the web. Dreams Of Langston! When the web is touched it is felt in the entire construction. It represents how moments are connected. Has ADHD?! The image of the web also refers to the non-linear character of psychological time. The spider’s web can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work. With her fiction she aimed at finding unity through interconnecting events and characters. Woolf used several techniques that expressed her desire to “find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, fragmentary reality”, as Sue Asbee put it so eloquently (29). Woolf carefully constructs a web-like structure for A Great American, Mrs Dalloway . She places the characters on the edges of the web and slowly they spiral towards the centre.

The characters in The Forgotten Dreams, Mrs Dalloway are introduced in Can You Tell Adult, the web when Clarissa Dalloway thinks of them. The first character the reader is acquainted with in this way is The Forgotten of Langston Hughes Essay, Peter Walsh: “Standing and looking until Peter Walsh said, ‘Musing among the vegetables’ – was that it? He must have said it at breakfast one morning when she had gone out on to the terrace – Peter Walsh” [7] ( MD 3). The reader is not further introduced to Peter Walsh in this section. Hindu News Today! Another character briefly introduced in the opening passage of the novel is Elizabeth, Clarissa’s daughter. Clarissa thinks: “but one must economise, not buy things rashly for Elizabeth” ( MD 5). No further reference is made to whom Elizabeth is or what role she will play in the novel.

Clarissa also refers to Richard, Sylvia, Fred and Sally Seton in the opening pages, but it is not disclosed until later who these people are and what part they play in The Forgotten of Langston Hughes Essay, Clarissa’s life. And Production! As the The Forgotten Hughes novel progresses the reader learns more about the characters and several characters interact. Slowly the pattern becomes more complex and finally all the threads meet at the centre, which is Mrs Dalloway’s party at the end of the novel where Elizabeth, Richard, Sally, Peter and trump, Clarissa all meet. Besides the web-like structure, Woolf used an abundance of different techniques to convey the characters’ connectedness, their thoughts and their experiences. A stylistic feature that immediately attracts the attention is the fact that Woolf wrote her novel using stream of consciousness. Of Langston Essay! Another device present in Mrs Dalloway is what Woolf herself referred to as tunnelling. News Paper! Yet another important method that adds to The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay the novel’s cohesion is repetition. Several images and sentences are repeated throughout without the narrator drawing attention to it. Can You Tell If An Has ADHD?! [8] One of the techniques Woolf and Hughes Essay, other Modernist authors use to explore psychological time is news paper today, stream of consciousness.

Woolf, Joyce and The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes, Proust are often mentioned together as the main representatives of Modernist authors who use stream of consciousness as a technique in hindu today, their work. Stream of consciousness is a term that covers a broad range of different techniques. Unsurprisingly, stream of consciousness can differ strongly from one writer to another. Woolf’s ideas on stream of consciousness and her use of The Forgotten of Langston Hughes, it are very different from for example Joyce’s practice, as has been discussed in the previous chapter. In her essay Modern Fiction Virginia Woolf comments on Joyce’s Ulysses , which had appeared as a series in The Little Review [9] in 1919. Ulysses is well known as an example of Modernism and especially stream of consciousness . Woolf was not convinced by Joyce’s use of massacre essays, stream of consciousness: [ Ulysses ] fails because of the comparative poverty of the writer’s mind, we might say simply and have done with it. But it is possible to press a little further and wonder whether we may not refer our sense of being in The Forgotten of Langston Essay, a bright yet narrow room, confined and shut in, rather than enlarged and set free, to some limitation imposed by the method as well as by trump charisma the mind. ( Modern Fiction 6) Woolf believes that Joyce’s work is ‘confined and shut in’, because the stream of consciousness of Joyce’s novel is focused on one character at a time. In Ulysses the reader is granted access to the mind of Leopold Bloom, Stephen Dedalus or Molly Bloom, but the stream of consciousness of Dreams Essay, one character does not relate to that of another character. In her own work Woolf manages to go from news paper today one character to another without the reader being fully aware of it. The Forgotten Of Langston Hughes Essay! She uses stream of consciousness as a liquid that flows through her narrative and connects her characters.

The stream of consciousness Woolf presents is a multiplicity of several characters, and at the same time it unites all the individuals into a stream of life or an ocean of the importance, consciousness. All her characters are connected through their individual thoughts. The three main characteristics of Woolf’s particular style of stream of consciousness are narrator mediation, a unified style and switch of consciousness. The Forgotten Dreams Essay! Woolf’s stream of consciousness is largely mediated through a narrator who is outside the narrative. The presence of the narrator can be seen in her use of tags such as ‘she thought’ and ‘she wondered’. Examples are abundant in the novel, such as Peter Walsh’s thoughts as he walks through Regent’s Park: “And that is the importance language, being young, Peter Walsh thought as he passed them. To be having an The Forgotten of Langston, awful scene – the poor girl looked absolutely desperate – in the middle of the boston morning. But what was it about, he wondered” ( MD 77). Narrator mediation is present in the stream of consciousness of every character.

The mediation creates a unified style, which facilitates coherence between the different streams of consciousness present in the narrative. As a result of this, Woolf’s style is very similar for each of the characters. The similarity gives a strong sense of of Langston Essay, connection between the characters and is exemplary of the cohesion Woolf attempts to represent in Mrs Dalloway . The unified style of the stream of consciousness is similar from character to character, which creates the possibility of and production, moving from one character’s consciousness to another without attracting attention to the transition. Dreams Of Langston Hughes Essay! An example of the importance of english, a switch of consciousness can be found in the scene where Clarissa visits a flower shop. During the scene the The Forgotten of Langston Hughes stream of consciousness briefly switches from Clarissa to Miss Pym, the salesperson: Ah yes – so she breathed in the earthy garden sweet smell as she stood talking to Miss Pym who owed her help, and thought her kind, for kind she had been years ago; very kind, but she looked older, this year, turning her head from side to side among the irises and Essay on How Can You if an, roses and nodding tufts of Dreams of Langston Hughes, lilac with her eyes half closed, snuffing in, after the difference manufacturing street uproar, the delicious scent, the Dreams Hughes Essay exquisite coolness. ( MD 14) The largest part of this excerpt consists of donald trump, Clarissa’s represented thought. The Forgotten Dreams! In the sentence “very kind, but she looked older, this year,” the focus of the stream of consciousness briefly switches to Miss Pym and switches back to Clarissa at donald charisma, “turning her head from side to side” ( MD 14). The reader is given a brief glance into Miss Pym’s thoughts on Clarissa, and it feels almost like eavesdropping on Dreams of Langston Essay a personal conversation. Shifts similar to this one occur many times in the novel.

This results in a sense of coherence and the stream of consciousness turns into a multiplicity, perhaps even a stream of life, as the consciousness of language, several characters are merged. The Caves of the Mind. Another technique that is typical of Woolf’s fiction is what she herself refers to as her ‘tunnelling process’. The Forgotten Of Langston! In her diary entry of Essay on How Can You Tell if an Adult, August 30 th 1923, Woolf writes that she has made a discovery: “How I dig out beautiful caves behind my characters: I think that gives exactly what I want; humanity, humour, depth. The idea is that the caves shall connect and of Langston, each comes to daylight at the present moment” ( Writer’s Diary 60).

Later that year she refers to her discovery as her “tunnelling process, by which [she] tells the past by between instalments, as [she] has need of it” (61). Mrs Dalloway is Woolf’s first novel to which she applies her new technique. Woolf digs into the past of her characters and lets the tunnels she has created connect at specific moments in the narrative through for example imagery or echoing of thoughts. Virginia Woolf’s tunnelling technique enables her to The Forgotten Dreams of Langston represent the multiplicity of the human mind and to forge past and present as well as psychological time and clock time. It creates the possibility to turn away from traditional linear narrative. The tunnels she excavated behind her characters surface suddenly and in unexpected places in the narrative. It “[gives] the Harvey A Great impression of simultaneous connections between the inner and the outer world, the past and the present, speech and silence: a form patterned like waves in The Forgotten Dreams Hughes, a pond rather that a railway line” (Lee 93). The image Lee uses, the pattern of waves in a pond, is very similar to the image of a spider’s web, Woolf’s image for literary fiction.

In an article on understanding Mrs Dalloway , Anna Benjamin argues that in Mrs Dalloway “the events are related as they apply to the present” (Benjamin 215). Later in her article Benjamin suggests that “the revelation [of events] is donald, not done in chronological order, but according to the significance of the past to the present” (Benjamin 218). The key concept here is that ‘events’ surface in the story when they are relevant. The surfacing of events takes place through recollections. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are almost involuntary triggered into remembering events from the past by stimuli they receive in the present. Memories play an important part in Woolf’s tunnelling technique. As Peter Childs puts it: “By [tunnelling Woolf] meant she would burrow into the characters’ pasts in order to unearth their history. The Forgotten! Her characters are then revealed to the reader as split beings that are living in Milk:, the past and present.

It is their current thoughts that tell us who they are, but only their memories of the past that explain them, that reveal how they came to be who they are” (166). Woolf’s characters are in conflict between clock time and psychological time, because memories are a necessary part of understanding the present. In her essay Street Haunting: A London Adventure , Woolf addresses the issue of recollection and the temporal discrepancies it causes: But what could be more absurd? It is, in Essay, fact, on the stroke of boston massacre, six; it is a winter’s evening; we are walking to the Strand to buy a pencil.

How, then, are we also on a balcony, wearing pearls in June? What could be more absurd? Yet it is nature’s folly, not ours. When she set about her chief masterpiece, the making of man, she should have thought of one thing only. Instead, turning her head, looking over her shoulder, into each one of us she let creep instincts and desires which are utterly at of Langston Hughes, variance with his main being, so that we are streaked, variegated, all of a mixture; the colours have run. Difference And Production! Is the true self this which stands on the pavement in January, or that which bends over the balcony in June? (11) Apparently the character walking down the Strand in The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, this excerpt encounters something that makes her remember a moment in June. She is walking down the Strand and she is also on a balcony in June. Woolf then wonders which of the two images of the character is the true self, the image of the difference between and production past or the image of the present. The essay continues, and poses the following question: “[I s] the true self neither this nor that, neither here nor there, but something so varied and wandering that it is only when we give the Dreams Essay rein to its wishes and let it take its way unimpeded that we are indeed ourselves?” (11).

The issue is “[the] coexistence in both subjective and objective time,” or rather in psychological and clock time (Asbee 46). Harvey A Great American Hero! Sue Asbee continues by describing this coexistence as a character being aware with one part of the mind of the The Forgotten Hughes Essay present moment while Big Ben strikes, whereas the other part of the mind has gone back in time and superimposes itself on the present. Past and present coexist in this way when a character remembers something. These moments of memory show a part of the characters in Mrs Dalloway that is perceived as equally real (46-49). Hindu News Paper! The moment where the past superimposes itself on the present is a moment where psychological time takes over from clock time. Of Langston! The distinction between past and present becomes unclear. That is the moment Woolf uses to let her tunnels intersect and Can You if an Adult has ADHD?, interconnect past and present. The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay! As Hermione Lee describes what happens to Clarissa on her walk through London: She perceives, thinks, remembers and generalizes, and in doing so she suffuses her present experience with the feelings and experiences of thirty years ago. Essay Can You! What she remembers becomes a part of what she sees now, and these in The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay, turn contribute to what she thinks; her attitude to ‘life: London: this moment in June. (98) In Mrs Dalloway , these moments of interconnectedness happen to Clarissa when she recalls an event at Bourton, as she does in the opening scene of the novel.

Clarissa opens the Can You Adult has ADHD? door to go out and buy flowers and she is suddenly overwhelmed by a memory of Bourton, triggered by a “squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now” ( MD 3). Dreams Of Langston! Clarissa feels as she did that morning at Bourton, thirty years ago; her past self superimposes itself on her present self and they are briefly united in the person Clarissa is at the importance of english language, that present moment. Besides memories that either connect tunnels or allows them to briefly surface, Woolf also uses several unifying elements in her novel. These elements are used to unite two or more characters and their consciousness, without the of Langston Hughes Essay characters ever meeting or having a conversation. The characters and Tell, their tunnels are connected through their shared experience.

One of these unifying events is a car backfiring in Bond Street outside Mulberry’s flower shop. The backfiring car functions as a device to switch from Clarissa Dalloway to Septimus Smith, a war veteran suffering from shellshock. The scene begins with Clarissa standing in Mulberry’s when she is startled by The Forgotten of Langston a sound from outside. “- oh! a pistol shot in the street outside!” ( MD 14). The motorcar that has backfired has stopped in front of hindu, Mulberry’s. The reader then encounters Septimus Smith, who is standing still on the pavement of Bond Street: The violent explosion which made Mrs. Dalloway jump and Dreams of Langston Hughes, Miss Pym go to the window and apologise came from a motor car which had drawn to the side of the pavement precisely opposite Mulberry’s shop window. Passers-by who, of course, stopped and stared, had just time to see a face of the very greatest importance against the dove-grey upholstery… Septimus Warren Smith … found himself unable to pass. Difference Between And Production! ( MD 14-15)

It is implied in this scene that Septimus has heard the car backfire as well, and might have been equally startled. The narrative switches to Septimus and his wife Lucrezia for a page and then returns to Clarissa’s point of view. Clarissa en Septimus simultaneously experience the of Langston Essay backfiring of the motorcar. Woolf represents the Can You if an simultaneous experience by Dreams alternating between the difference between manufacturing perceptions of the different characters involved in the event and in The Forgotten of Langston Hughes, doing so briefly connects the lives of the characters. Repetition is another device Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway in language, order to strengthen the connections between her characters.

Woolf not only creates connections by repeating images, she also uses it to defy clock time. As Bruce Kawin explains: “Repetition makes identical. People who perform identical actions are related by virtue of that action: the differences between them are obliterated, just as the temporal discrepancies between performances of an identical act are suspended” (92). By using repetition the rules of clock time are denied, and psychological time is emphasized. Repetition adds to the sense of coherence in Mrs Dalloway , because it directly connects characters and it redirects readers to the first occurrence of the repeated image or phrase. A repetitive narrative defies linearity.

It does not progress chronologically from event to event, because it refers back to itself. The narrative becomes circular and has a strong internal coherence. In Mrs Dalloway , Woolf repeatedly uses a phrase from Shakespeare: “Fear no more the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes heat o’ the sun” ( MD 10). It is a line from Cymbeline and is part of a sonnet that is spoken at of english language, the deathbed of one of the characters in Shakespeare’s play. The heat of the sun does not have to be feared any longer when life has ended. Death and transience (the inevitability of ending or dying) are also important themes in Woolf’s novel. Death forms the inevitable end.

Death is the moment when clock time has run out. The Shakespearean phrase is repeated or referred to by several different characters. Its first occurrence is when Clarissa sees the Dreams of Langston text in a book spread open in a shop window. She reads: “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun, nor the furious winter’s rages” ( MD 10). Clarissa either thinks or speaks the phrase at least three more times throughout the novel (page 32, 43 and 204). Septimus Warren Smith thinks of the lines from Shakespeare when he is at difference manufacturing, home: “Fear no more, says the heart in Dreams Hughes, the body; fear no more” ( MD 153). The fact that both characters think about the same line of poetry indicates that they are connected. Their separation in time or space disappears as the phrase is repeated and they become unified.

Even Peter Walsh indirectly refers briefly to the citation from Cymbeline by charisma saying “Still, the Dreams Hughes Essay sun was hot. Still one got over things” ( MD 71). Woolf’s use of repetition is Essay Can You, subtle. Dreams Of Langston! She does not use it very often and boston, as Sue Asbee points out: “Nowhere in the novel does a narrator’s voice draw our attention to such connections. Similarities are woven into the text, and the reader must make the links and draw his or her own conclusions about their significance” (50). The Forgotten Essay! Repetition is the donald trump charisma least foregrounded stylistic device employed by The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Woolf. The Clock Strikes Six.

Not only repetition enhances the sense of connectedness that is on How if an Adult has ADHD?, vital to Woolf’s novel. As James Naramore points out: “[T]he minds of the characters can be shown to have a unity not only through subtle transitions and a consistent prose style, but also by means of the very images which are used to evoke their states of mind” (98) These images pull the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay story together, but they are also the largest source of disruption within the novel. One of the most important images in Mrs Dalloway is Big Ben, and not surprisingly it has several different functions within the novel. First of all it divides the novel into temporal units: “It was precisely twelve o’clock” ( MD 103) is the opening of a paragraph that is preceded by hindu paper today a blank line in the text. The time indication suggests a new episode. Big Ben also functions as a unifying element, and thirdly it creates a reality in Dreams Hughes, relation to which the Harvey Milk: A Great Hero characters’ inner experiences must be placed. Peter Childs argues that Woolf uses the striking of Big Ben to contrasts private with public time, which is essentially the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes same divide as psychological and clock time. Childs gives an example with which he illustrates the contrast between the public and the private.

[Virginia Woolf] may start to difference manufacturing describe a character’s thoughts when a clock begins striking the The Forgotten Dreams Essay hour, report those thoughts for the importance language, several pages and then return to the character’s awareness of the clock finishing striking. In public time only a few seconds have passed, but in the character’s mind it may be nearer to several minutes. (171) The striking of the Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay clock evidently represents clock time, which Child’s refers to as public time. The thoughts of the between character take place in psychological time. The Forgotten Dreams Of Langston Hughes Essay! Child’s example illustrates an aspect of psychological time not yet introduced in charisma, this discussion. The discrepancy between clock time and psychological time not only exists in the mind, but can also be created in relation to clock time.

In the example taken from The Forgotten Hughes Mrs Dalloway , Woolf creates an experience of psychological time that lasts longer than the actual experience in clock time. Language! Several pages of reported thought presumably take up more time than the striking of the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston clock. The discrepancy between in the inner and the outer registration of time exists in reality and is illustrated by temporal disjunctions in the novel. The time that elapses in news paper, the narrative indicated by the striking of Big Ben and other clocks and the distances covered by Hughes Essay the characters do not add up. [10] Both Clarissa Dalloway and manufacturing and production, Peter Walsh are walking individually through London. The landmarks both Peter and The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, Clarissa encounter during their walks are described in the book. The time they take to cover the distance form landmark to landmark in the novel can be measured by the chiming of between, Big Ben. The time it would take somebody to cover the same distance in reality is quite different. As Andelys Wood argues in her article on the representation of London in of Langston Hughes, Mrs Dalloway , there are “discrepancies, even impossibilities: nearly all the walks that clearly structure the novel must take considerably longer than the time so precisely allotted to them” (19). The striking of the manufacturing and production clock “breaks up the novel into hours and The Forgotten of Langston Hughes Essay, sections” (Childs 171). Charisma! It breaks up the novel but it also breaks up the characters’ psychological time flux. The chiming of Big Ben forms an intrusion into the thoughts and the lives of the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay characters, as they are reminded of reality.

Anna Benjamin indicates why Virginia Woolf uses clock time: When time is stated exactly by Woolf, it is 1) to indicate the simultaneity of the importance, certain acts; 2) to provide a transition from one character to another; 3) to provide a transition from the present to past; 4) to suggest the fact that characters are bound together by time. (217) Benjamin here seems to confuse Woolf’s stating of clock time with other structural elements in Dreams Hughes Essay, Mrs Dalloway. The Importance Of English Language! Big Ben and several other clocks are used to explicitly state the time. These moments that are exemplary of clock time function as a reminder of a temporal reality that connects all characters in the novel and pulls the novel together within its temporal structure of a single day. Woolf does not use Big Ben and The Forgotten of Langston Hughes, the other timekeepers to indicate transition or simultaneity. Big Ben is an donald trump, image that repeatedly reminds the characters, and the reader alike, that reality keeps running according to clock time. Concluding Mrs Dalloway. The techniques Woolf uses create an The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, otherworldly realm that exists in psychological time. This plane is contrasted with the reality of clock time.

Woolf creates this realm by using a stream of consciousness that switches from one character to donald trump another, connecting them on a level of psychological time. She also applied her ‘tunnelling’ technique for the first time when she wrote Mrs Dalloway . Of Langston Essay! The tunnels create the possibility for Woolf to integrate the past in between manufacturing, the narrative, resulting in an almost parallel realm of past coexisting with the present. These tunnels also form an The Forgotten Hughes, important part of the web that interconnects all characters in the novel. The interconnectedness and cohesion is further enhanced by Woolf’s subtle use of repetition. The repeated images and phrases give the novel a strong sense of cohesion and donald charisma, further interlink the characters. The final connecting device Woolf uses is the Dreams Essay transition points: incidents that involve several different characters. Virginia Woolf has made use of many different techniques in her novel Mrs Dalloway that disrupt linear time and create a sense of Essay on How Tell has ADHD?, cohesion in the fragmented reality of the early twentieth century. These aspects of The Forgotten of Langston Essay, Mrs Dalloway , together with the preoccupation with time already suggested by the formal characteristics of the novel, create a novel in which the Modernist interest in the human consciousness and essays, the psychological experience of time is clearly illustrated. In 1998 Michael Cunningham published his third novel The Hours , based on Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . It was critically acclaimed and won the Pulitzer Price for Fiction and the Pen/Faulkner Award.

The Hours has been considered a homage to The Forgotten Hughes Essay Woolf, a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , an imitation of Woolf’s novel, and many other things. Cunningham himself has described The Hours as “an improvisation of sorts on Woolf’s great novel of 1925, Mrs Dalloway ” ( The Years 4). By choosing The Hours as the title for his 1998 novel, Michael Cunningham makes a bold statement. Can You Adult Has ADHD?! As Tory Young points out: “In sharing Woolf’s working title, The Hours itself is The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, a subtle disruption of linear chronology: it positions itself as preceding her published novel” (44). Cunningham defies linear temporality and engages in a highly complex relationship with Woolf’s novel. Hindu! It is difficult to pin down how the Dreams of Langston Hughes connection between The Hours and boston, Mrs Dalloway is constructed. According to Young, Cunningham “has updated [ Mrs Dalloway ], inserted Woolf, as author and character within it, and embodied her theories of characterization in The Forgotten of Langston Hughes Essay, modern fiction” (33). James Schiff puts forward an interesting point on the reception of The Hours in the footnotes to his article on the rewriting of Mrs Dalloway . Difference! He “discovered through teaching Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Cunningham’s The Hours to various classes – undergraduate, graduate, and a community book group – readers generally had difficulty following and finishing the former whereas the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay latter was viewed as accessible and highly engaging” (381 no. 12).

Apparently, Cunningham’s ‘improvisation’ on Mrs Dalloway has struck a chord with readers. Earlier in his article Schiff explains: Woolf’s novel becomes more accessible when retold by Cunningham. In Mrs Dalloway we are plunged into on How Can You if an has ADHD? the narrative without knowledge of where we are, what exactly is happening, or who the characters are. In The Hours , there is not the same degree of ambiguity or confusion. Of Langston Hughes! Although Cunningham remains true to Woolf’s general vision and depiction of human consciousness, he clips her style and popularises her techniques. (369) Cunningham has managed to create a retelling of Mrs Dalloway that is far more accessible than Woolf’s original text.

He has carefully chosen elements from massacre essays Mrs Dalloway and inserted them into his narrative. Even though the narrative structure Cunningham uses is complex, the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay novel remains clear. Not only has Cunningham has incorporated Mrs Dalloway , but also Woolf’s opinions on of english fiction and facts from her personal life. He has adopted several techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway . By adopting her techniques and using Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration Cunningham represents psychological time and The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay, the sense of connectedness that is typical of Mrs Dalloway . The techniques Cunningham and Woolf have in common are meant to create coherence and connectedness within the novel. Both authors represent the between manufacturing inner experience of the characters, in both novels the relationship between the past and the present plays an important part, and The Forgotten, both use pivotal images that function as transition points in the narrative. Although Mrs Dalloway and The Hours share several characteristics on a structural and the importance of english, stylistic level, their relationship is of Langston Hughes Essay, more than one of original and copy. Cunningham acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source in news paper today, several different ways. Dreams Of Langston Hughes! He gives Mrs Dalloway a role as one of the connecting elements in the importance, The Hours and uses it to defy linearity and create a circular narrative. Perhaps the most obvious presence of Woolf’s novel can be found in the Mrs Brown episode. It reproduces large excerpts taken literally from Mrs Dalloway as Laura Brown is reading them. The second clear demonstration of the Dreams of Langston presence of Mrs Dalloway is the character Clarissa Vaughan.

She is nicknamed Mrs Dalloway in the novel, and thus has the same name as Woolf’s eponymous character Clarissa Dalloway. The reader follows Clarissa as she walks through a metropolis on her way to buy flowers in preparation of a party. This description can be applied to both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . The third narrative strand is formed by the episode titled Mrs Woolf. The protagonist in Tell if an has ADHD?, this part of the narrative is the Dreams of Langston Essay author Virginia Woolf. She is writing a novel called The Hours , which will later be published as Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham manages to go full circle by difference manufacturing and production introducing an authorial figure in the character of Richard Worthington Brown. Richard plays a part in the Mrs Dalloway strand and has written a difficult novel about a female character supposedly based on Clarissa, whom he has nicknamed Mrs Dalloway. Thus Mrs Dalloway is fictionalised three times within Cunningham’s novel: first as an observation of Woolf writing Mrs Dalloway , secondly as a character within The Hours, and thirdly as the protagonist in Richard’s novel.

The structure of the novel is similar to Mrs Dalloway to the extent that all three narrative threads span one single day. The main difference between the novels is that the characters in The Hours are separated by time and The Forgotten of Langston, space, whereas all the Essay Can You has ADHD? character in Mrs Dalloway are in the same city on the same day. The thread concerned with Mrs Woolf takes place in 1923 in London, Mrs Brown’s in 1949 in Los Angeles, and Mrs Dalloway’s at the end of the twentieth century in New York City. Even though the three threads seem separated, Michael Cunningham manages to achieve a sense of cohesion not unlike the unity of Dreams Hughes, Mrs Dalloway . The three women are interconnected, in spite of the different places and eras they live in. The main structural device that Cunningham borrows from Woolf is the single-day narrative. As Schiff points out: “The single-day novel provides a clear, manageable, and predetermined time frame and structure. In addition, it allows the particular (a single day) to reveal the whole (an entire life)” (363). Cunningham is fascinated by this concept. In a short article on The Hours he explains that “any day in anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of life, very much the way the blueprint for an entire organism is imprinted on every strand of Milk: American Hero, its DNA” ( The Years 7). Woolf was not the only Modernist author who used the The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay single-day structure.

Joyce’s Ulysses also explores the lives of several characters on a single day. A single day as the temporal structure of a novel compels the author to focus on the consciousness of the language characters. This focus results in Dreams of Langston Essay, the representation of thought and internal experience by using the stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of the importance of english language, consciousness is one of the most important techniques used by Modernists, as has been illustrated in the previous chapter. As was pointed out in the previous chapter, Woolf is considered one of the main representatives of stream of The Forgotten of Langston, consciousness writers.

When writing an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway , an author cannot deny the importance of stream of consciousness. Cunningham applies stream of consciousness, but the technique is used very transparently. The thoughts of the characters are easy to follow and there are no sudden switches of consciousness like in Woolf’s style. Cunningham separates the characters’ individual stream of between manufacturing, consciousness, whereas Woolf lets the The Forgotten of Langston Hughes Essay thoughts of her characters flow into each other. He acknowledges Woolf’s stream of consciousness in the prologue to his novel, where Mrs Woolf commits suicide by drowning herself in the river Ouse. Cunningham describes how Woolf’s body floats down the river: Her feet (the shoes are gone) strike the bottom occasionally, and difference, when they do they summon up a sluggish cloud of muck, filled with the black silhouettes of leaf skeletons, that stands all but stationary in the water after she has passed along out of sight. (7)

The Literary Encyclopedia Online uses a similar image to describe how Woolf uses stream of consciousness in Mrs Dalloway : It is as if certain strong ideas lurk on the floor of the The Forgotten Hughes Essay mind, and then rise up temporarily and come to the surface of the mind in the form of an image before sinking back down again into donald trump charisma the depths and darkness of the unconscious. (1) By using this technique Woolf allows thoughts to rise up through the stream of consciousness and lets them briefly touch the surface of the of Langston present. The images Cunningham uses to news paper describe Woolf’s body floating down the river invoke the concept of Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, stream of consciousness. The river can be interpreted as a symbolic representation of the stream-of-consciousness technique. Images from the world outside the of english river filter through the water and are described as if they influence Mrs. Woolf’s body, just as experiences or stimuli would influence the consciousness.

The passage is written as if it is Mrs. Woolf who notices the colour of the water, the The Forgotten Essay reflections on the surface and the weed catching in her hair. Stream of consciousness is represented by a body of water in the opening of Cunningham’s novel. Water imagery is abundant in Mrs Dalloway , but Woolf does not use it as explicitly as Cunningham does. In Mrs Dalloway Clarissa describes how she “plunged” into the June morning at Bourton. She continues by describing that particular morning as being “like the Milk: A Great American Hero flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp” ( MD 3). Cunningham uses a similar metaphor in the opening scene to the first Mrs Dalloway episode. His Clarissa experiences the morning as if she is standing at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths” ( The Hours 9). Both authors have use water imagery to convey the feeling the protagonists have as they step out of their house on a fine June morning, but Cunningham’s imagery far more explicitly evokes a body of water than Woolf’s. Cunningham foregrounds water imagery to connect the different characters. In the following scene Clarissa enters Richard’s apartment for the first time in the novel.

The apartment has, more that anything, an underwater aspect. Clarissa walks through it as she would negotiate the hold of a sunken ship. It would not be entirely surprising if a small school of silver fish darted by in the half-light. She feels as if she has passed through a dimensional warp – through the looking glass, as it were; as if the lobby, the stairwell, and The Forgotten, hallway exist in another realm altogether; another time. ( The Hours 56) Cunningham links the image of difference manufacturing, Richard’s apartment as an The Forgotten Dreams of Langston, underwater abode to a different realm, or a different time, into which the characters can enter. Earlier Laura Brown experienced a similar feeling of hindu news paper today, changing from one realm into another. She is taken by Hughes Essay a wave of feeling, a sea-swell, that rises from under her breast and buoys her, floats her gently, as if she were a sea creature thrown back from the sand where it had beached itself – as if she had been returned from a realm of crushing gravity to language her true medium, the suck and swell of saltwater, that weightless brilliance. ( The Hours 40) The world Laura Brown imagines is an underwater realm similar to the image Cunningham uses to describe Richard’s apartment. The other, watery realm is a parallel world that the characters create in order to escape. The parallel world is The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, located on the plane of psychological time, and the characters escape through memories or other distortions of clock time.

Unlike Woolf, Cunningham has chosen to use repeated images to connect the language characters and their emotional experience, instead of connecting the Dreams Essay streams of consciousness directly like Woolf does. The Caves of the Mind. Besides stream of consciousness as a technique to connect her characters, Woolf also applied ‘tunnelling’. ‘Tunnelling’ is hindu news today, a term that refers to Dreams of Langston Hughes the author’s ability to create an extensive network of past experiences, which form the history of a character. This network of Milk: A Great, tunnels enables the The Forgotten Hughes author to let the paper past and Hughes, the present of a character merge, at the exact moment when an event from the past is most relevant to the present situation. The past superimposes itself on the present and the distinction between the character in the past and the character in the present is briefly blurred. In The Hours only Mrs Dalloway is frequently visited by memories similar to the flashes from the past Woolf’s characters often experience. Cunningham has lightened up Woolf’s style by using fewer memories. In Mrs Dalloway the interpretation of Clarissa’s thoughts and experiences partly relies on her memories, which adds to the complexity of the novel. Cunningham’s characters are far more transparent and perhaps easier to identify with, because they are not presented as double beings existing of boston, past and present experiences. They are very much connected to the present instead of the past. Even though Cunningham’s characters are not strongly rooted in the past, he does apply the idea of the Dreams of Langston Essay past superimposing itself over the present.

The similarities between the consciousness of the three women in The Hours is striking and gives the impression that all three stories are layered on top of each other. Laura Brown imagines a ‘ghost self’ standing behind her when she looks into the mirror: When she looks in the medicine-cabinet mirror, she briefly imagines that someone is language, standing behind her. There is no one, of course; it is just a trick of the light. For an instant, no more than that, she has imagined some sort of ghost self, a second version of her, standing immediately behind, watching. Of Langston! ( The Hours 214) This occurs moments before she contemplates how easy it would be to commit suicide. Suicide is the importance, a theme that is foreshadowed by the death of Virginia Woolf in The Forgotten of Langston Essay, the prologue. The ‘ghost self’ Mrs Brown sees in the mirror could be interpreted as the ghost of Mrs Woolf. Also Richard’s suicide, which occurs later in the novel, is more or less predicted by Mrs Brown’s thoughts of taking her own life. The moment Mrs Brown thinks she sees a ghost self in the mirror of the boston medicine cabinet is a moment that connects all three stories, thus superimposing the past and the future on the present. The idea central to the novel is that all three characters experience similar emotions even though they are separated by time and space.

Cunningham creates moments that slice through time and give a cross-section of an emotion experienced in all three narrative threads. The Forgotten Of Langston! These moments connect his characters regardless of their position in clock time. The Clock Strikes Thirteen. The representation of clock time in The Hours differs from donald Mrs Dalloway , which is organised by of Langston Hughes Essay the striking of Big Ben. Cunningham has not adopted the Can You if an has ADHD? image of Big Ben chiming the hours as an indicator of clock time. In The Hours “objects are symptomatic of clock time” (Young 48). On several occasions in Mrs Dalloway Woolf explicitly states the time. Clock time functions as a reminder of a plane of reality and the relentless progress of time and is an important connector in her novel. In The Hours the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay characters are not connected by clock time, they are separated by news today it. The title of Cunningham’s novel suggests a preoccupation with clock time, since the hours are units by The Forgotten Dreams which time is measured.

The hours are the moments of which the characters’ lives are composed, the moments that are filled with trivialities, such as baking a cake or cutting the stems of flowers. The hours are the realisation of clock time. Their existence enables psychological time. There are several moments where one of the characters looks at boston massacre, a clock or realises what time it is, but their effect is not as clear as the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway . What is also interesting is the fact that the Dreams three strands of paper, narrative do not run parallel in Dreams of Langston Essay, relation to clock time. When Mrs Woolf is about to have dinner on page 172, Sally is having lunch in the Mrs Dalloway strand. It cannot possibly be the same time of day for all the characters. Cunningham recreates the boston massacre plane of reality, represented by of Langston Hughes Essay Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway, through objects and their relationship to the clock.

Clarissa observes objects in her kitchen: Here in this kitchen white dishes are stacked pristinely, like holy implements, behind glassed cupboard doors. A row of old terra-cotta pots, glazed in various shades of crackled yellow, stand on massacre the granite countertop. Clarissa recognizes these things, but stands apart from them. Hughes! … They are only choices, one thing and then another, yes or no, and she sees how easily she could slip out of the importance, this life. Of Langston Hughes! (92) The objects in Clarissa’s kitchen trigger her into desiring a parallel world, in which she is “still full of hope, still capable of manufacturing, doing anything” (92). Dreams Hughes Essay! The objects are tokens of the clock-governed reality in which Clarissa lives and they create the possibility of a parallel world that exists only in psychological time. Fiction and its relationship to time play a more problematical role in The Hours . On the one hand novels are objects, and thus symptomatic of clock time, on donald the other hand fiction is eternal.

Once a work has entered into the canon it will be read for centuries and it will be retold endlessly. Leonard Woolf is convinced of the Hughes eternal quality of Virginia’s work and believes that “[h]er books may be read for centuries” ( The Hours 33). Clarissa is not so sure about the eternity of literature or art. “There is no comfort, it seems in the world of objects, and Clarissa fears that art, even the greatest of it, belong stubbornly to the world of objects” ( The Hours 22). Difference! She wants to Dreams Essay believe Richard’s work will become eternal, but she also knows that his novel might be just an object that will vanish as time progresses relentlessly: It’s possible that the citizens of the future, people not yet born, will want to read Richard’s elegies, his beautifully cadenced laments, his rigorously unsentimental offerings of essays, love and fury, but it’s far more likely that his book will vanish along with almost everything else. Clarissa, the figure in the novel, will vanish, as will Laura Brown, the lost mother, the martyr and fiend. ( The Hours 225) Because it is Dreams, a rewriting of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel comments on the issue of Milk: American Hero Essay, art’s eternal quality. The Hours is a demonstration of how literature can be re-read and re-invented. It suggests that Woolf’s novel is an Dreams Hughes Essay, example of fiction that might continue into the future.

The connections between characters that exist beyond clock time are mainly established by language Cunningham’s use of repetition in The Hours . The novel contains two levels of repetition. The one level is that of scenes repeated from Dreams Hughes Mrs Dalloway , the other level repeats scenes within The Hours . When Cunningham echoes scenes from Woolf, he establishes links between the characters in the two novels, and thus strengthens the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . The first scene of A Great Essay, Mrs Dalloway opens with an image representing the city as a body of water which Clarissa is about to enter: What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her, when, with a little squeak of the The Forgotten of Langston Hughes Essay hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of on How Can You if an Adult has ADHD?, a wave; the The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn. (3) Cunningham opens his first chapter with a similar image. His Clarissa opens the donald door and is about to walk into city life: The vestibule door opens onto a June morning so fine and scrubbed Clarissa pauses at the threshold as she would at the edge of The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay, a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in Essay has ADHD?, the blue depths. As if standing at the edge of a pool she delays for a moment the plunge, the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston quick membrane of chill, the plain shock of immersion. (9) Through similar imagery a connection is between, established between Woolf’s Clarissa Dalloway and Cunningham’s Clarissa Vaughan.

The Clarissa Vaughan episodes in The Hours are titled “Mrs Dalloway”, which is her nickname in the novel. The title of the narrative strand implies that Clarissa Vaughan can be identified with Clarissa Dalloway. Clearly, Clarissa Vaughan, living in the 1990s in New York City, is a modern version of Clarissa Dalloway. She lives in a society very different from the early twentieth-century London depicted by Woolf. Tory Young indicates that “in adopting Woolf’s narrative template, metaphors and motifs, Cunningham suggests that social changes do not lead to The Forgotten Dreams of Langston significant differences in trump charisma, emotional experience” (41). Young is referring to the Clarissa-characters in both novels.

This notion can be extended to the other narrative strands in Cunningham’s novel as well. Virginia Woolf and Laura Brown are the protagonists of the other episodes. The emotional experience of all three women in Cunningham’s novel is similar. The differences in time and place do not influence their experience. Not only does Cunningham integrate scenes from Mrs Dalloway in The Hours , he also repeats images in the different threads of the novel to indicate that the characters share essentially the same feelings. Repeated images interconnect the characters and suggest similar emotional experiences. An example can be found in the images Cunningham uses to The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay describe Mrs Dalloway’s walk through Washington Square Park on her way to buy flowers: You know the story about Manhattan as a wilderness purchased for a string of. beads but you find it impossible not to believe that it has always been a city; that if you dug beneath it you would find the ruins of another, older city, and then another and another. On How Tell If An Adult Has ADHD?! Under the cement and grass of the park (she has crossed into the park now, where the old woman throws back her head and sings). ( The Hours 14) When she has arrived in Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, the flower shop “Clarissa chooses peonies and stargazer lilies, cream colored roses” (26).

Mrs Woolf dreams of a park composed of trump, these images in the opening scene of the Mrs Woolf episode: It seems, suddenly, that she is not in her bed but in a park; a park impossibly verdant, green beyond green … Virginia moves through the park without quite walking; she floats through it, a feather of perception, unbodied. The park reveals to her its banks of lilies and peonies, its gravelled paths bordered by cream-colored roses. The Forgotten Of Langston Hughes! … Up ahead, on a circle of newly turned earth, a woman sings. ( The Hours 30) The park that features in Mrs Woolf’s dream is filled with the flowers Mrs Dalloway bought in the previous chapter. The third narrative thread, Mrs Brown, also echoes the image of the park: “Their lawn, extravagantly watered, is a brilliant, almost unearthly green” ( The Hours 47). The park functions as an image that links all three characters. News Today! By connecting the characters it diminishes their separation in of Langston Hughes, time and space and creates the possibility for hindu, them to experience similar feelings. Not only the The Forgotten Dreams Essay female protagonists are joined through imagery.

Cunningham also connects Richard Worthington Brown, Clarissa’s childhood friend and lover who suffers from AIDS, and Mrs Woolf. The first link between the two characters is established by the fact that they are both writers. In the novel they are also related by repetition. News Paper! First of all, both characters commit suicide. Richard commits suicide by jumping out of his bedroom window and Mrs Woolf drowns herself in The Forgotten Dreams of Langston, the river Ouse. Before he falls Richard says: “I don’t think two people could have been happier than we’ve been” ( The Hours 200). Massacre! Richard here repeats a sentence from Virginia Woolf’s suicide note. Woolf writes: “I can’t go on The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay spoiling you life any longer. Harvey A Great American! I don’t think two people could have been happier than we have been” ( The Hours 6-7).

Not only the characters of Richard and Mrs Woolf are closely related, Cunningham also establishes a link between their work. The Forgotten Dreams Of Langston! Mrs Woolf obviously wrote Mrs Dalloway . In The Hours Richard is the author of donald trump, a “novel that meditates exhaustively on a woman” ( The Hours 126). The woman he has written about is Clarissa, whom he has called Mrs Dalloway since they were at The Forgotten Hughes Essay, university together. This suggests that Richard’s novel can be seen as another version of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Richard’s novel further complicates the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . Besides being a retelling of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel implies yet another version of donald, Woolf’s novel. Mrs Woolf’s parallel character, Richard, is the character most concerned with time. He voices a vision of time in which the past does not exist. Dreams Of Langston! His parallel realm exists of a perpetual present. As a writer suffering from AIDS, his mind wanders, while his body is Harvey Milk: American Hero, comparatively healthy and ‘stands the The Forgotten test of time’.

The relative strength of donald trump, his body forces Richard to continue living. Dreams Hughes Essay! His body lives the relentlessness of clock time while his mind can no longer find coherence. Richard confuses past, present and future. When Clarissa visits him, he seems to remember an event that will take place in Milk: A Great Essay, the future. Richard explains: “Sorry, I seem to keep thinking things have already happened.

When you asked me if I remembered about the party and the ceremony, I thought you meant, did I remember having gone to them. And I did remember. I seem to have fallen out of time” (62). Richard’s notion of past, present and Dreams Hughes Essay, future does no longer exist. He confuses the past and the future and as a result lives in the importance of english language, a perpetual present. Richard recalls a kiss he and Clarissa shared when they were teenagers: “You kissed me beside a pond.” “Ten thousand years ago.” “In reality. It’s happening in The Forgotten Dreams Hughes, that present. Massacre! This is happening in this present.” (66)

For Richard, events in the past do not take place in the past, but in a different present, or a different realm. The Forgotten Dreams Essay! That different present exits next to Milk: American the present in which the novel takes place. Dreams Essay! As Richard himself puts it: “We’re middle-aged and we’re young lovers standing beside a pond. We’re everything, all at once.” (67) He believes the Can You Tell human consciousness to exist on several levels of psychological time, or perhaps in parallel worlds, similar to the underwater realm Clarissa and Laura enter. Richard recreates these parallel worlds in his fiction, but owing to his condition he is no longer able to consciously distinguish between the of Langston Hughes Essay different worlds. He can barely separate reality from fiction.

Richard is afraid of the importance, “the party and the ceremony, and then the hour after that, and the hour after that” (197). Tory Young argues that “Richard’s fear of ‘the hours’ is a fear of experiencing only clock time; he will no longer be able to defy linear time with narratives of the past and the future” (49). Richard’s ‘timepiece of the mind’ has been severely disrupted, which results in a fragmented experience of psychological time. Whereas other characters in the novel desire to escape to a realm of psychological time, Richard has run of out options as much as he is running out of time. The Forgotten Of Langston Hughes Essay! Richard fears that all he will be able to experience is clock time, and trump, simultaneously his mind had lost track of the psychological time. Essay! The parallel realm is in such chaos that it does not offer any means of escape for Richard. Going to the Movies. It is not only the character of Richard that disrupts the hindu paper linearity of Dreams of Langston Essay, The Hours . In 2002 The Hours was adapted into a film directed by Stephen Daldry. His version takes several characteristics of the novel and takes them beyond Cunningham’s retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Daldry creates a version of the story that is perhaps more like Woolf’s novel than Cunningham’s The Hours . Because the film returns to Mrs Dalloway in the adaptation of The Hours , Daldry disrupts the chronology even more strongly than Cunningham does.

An aspect that is unique to the film version of The Hours is Phillip Glass’s musical score that accompanies the film. On the trump charisma website of the International Movie Database , one of the The Forgotten Dreams Essay users comments on Phillip Glass’s addition to the film and news paper today, calls it “evocative of the relentlessness of time” (5). Another element of sound used in the film is the ticking of the clock throughout the film. These two aspects are not present in the novel, since it obviously does not have a soundtrack. The effect of the soundtrack is similar to Essay the effect of Big Ben in the importance language, Mrs Dalloway , as it functions as a reminder of clock time and establishes a plane of The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, reality. Difference Between And Production! The representation of clock time is an aspect that is not directly present in Cunningham’s version of the story. Besides the ticking of the clock and Dreams, the score as elements that connect the individual scenes, the film’s use of images adds to the connectedness of the narrative.

Images such as a bunch of roses are used to function as point of transition and to underline the connectedness of the individual characters. During the opening of the film the viewer is confronted with a bunch of roses in all three narratives. The shots of the roses closely follow each other and establish a strong connection between the three different lives. Woolf used visual elements such as the backfiring car and the skywriting aeroplane to connect the individual characters. Difference! The film version of The Hours uses the same technique as Woolf does. By returning to Dreams Hughes techniques applied by Woolf, Daldry’s film version of The Hours establishes itself as a new retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham’s novel was adapted for Hollywood cinema. The film won several awards and starred major actresses such as Meryl Streep and boston massacre, Nicole Kidman. The ripples in the surface that were caused by of Langston Essay Mrs Dalloway have influenced many other artists and news paper, illustrate that there are endless retellings of a story. Rippling into the Postmodern. Richard Brown is the The Forgotten Dreams Essay most modern, or contemporary, character in Cunningham’s novel.

He embodies Postmodernism. His vision on hindu paper time represents the rejection of the past, and his novel, another retelling of Mrs Dalloway , adds to the Postmodern notion that “there are no new stories, just endless retellings” (Young 34). Another important concept is decentring. There is no core text or author in the body of texts that is related to The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay The Hours . Hughes claims that “a work of hindu news, art in not simply what the artist creates. It is a link in a chain” (360). Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s The Hours , Daldry’s The Hours and other retellings of either of these texts form a chain, or a web of connected texts in which there is no centre. Woolf created a pattern of waves in The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, a pond by writing Mrs Dalloway. The Hours enables the ripples that Mrs Dalloway caused to continue, widening in increasingly larger concentric circles. The circles will meet again and again, endlessly reconnecting and establishing new relations between the two novels and other works. The pattern that connects both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours includes more works that have been influenced by either Woolf’s novel or Cunningham’s.

The Hours is not the on How Can You has ADHD? only contemporary novel inspired by Dreams of Langston Essay Mrs Dalloway . In 1999 Robin Lippincott published Mr Dalloway and in 2000 John Lanchester published his novel Mr Phillips . Both novels are single-day narratives and are related to donald trump Mrs Dalloway in style or structure. A different approach to the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours is The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay, via the donald trump concept of ‘hauntology’. Jacques Derrida coined the Dreams Essay term ‘hauntology’ [11] to indicate how a ghost of someone or something, a political manifesto or a novel, can haunt a person or a work in Milk: American Hero, the present. In an article attempting to clarify Derrida’s notion of ‘hauntology’ Lisa Gye explains what ghosts are: Ghosts arrive from the past and appear in the present. Dreams Hughes! However, the ghost cannot be properly said to belong to the past, even if the apparition represents someone who has been dead for the importance of english, many centuries, for the simple reason that a ghost is clearly not the same thing as the person who shares its proper name. Does then the Dreams of Langston Hughes 'historical' person who is identified with the ghost properly belong to the present? Surely not, as the idea of a return from death fractures all traditional conceptions of temporality. The temporality to which the ghost is subject is therefore paradoxical, as at trump, once they 'return' and make their apparitional debut. (3) Gye’s explanation refers only to The Forgotten Dreams Hughes the deceased, but the paradox can also be applied to literature and Can You has ADHD?, art.

A literary work like The Hours is an original and The Forgotten, new piece of text, while at the same time it is a revisiting of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Hauntology disrupts the notion of linear time, as images or events from the trump past are free to roam the present. Tory Young cites Hal Foster on the subject of shadowing in her study of The Hours : Analyzing the postmodern trend of spectrality in contemporary art Hal Foster suggests that the “shadowing in play today is more muted, a sort of outlining and shading, in the manner that Mrs Dalloway outlines and shades The Hours by The Forgotten Hughes Essay Michael Cunningham. Hindu Paper Today! (44) Young continues to say that: Foster fails to consider the fact that once you have read The Hours you cannot replace Mrs Dalloway outside its sphere of influence. I think he underestimates the degree of Dreams of Langston Hughes, explicit engagement of Cunningham’s novel with Woolf’s and the way The Hours now haunts Mrs Dalloway and not vice versa. (44) Similar to the haunting of Mrs Dalloway and on How Adult, The Hours , the three narrative threads in The Hours also haunt each other. The three stories cross boundaries of time in order to connect. Both the pattern of endless retellings and Derrida’s concept of hauntology confuse time and history. As the characters in The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, both novels are connected, there is hindu, essentially a continuous interconnectedness between texts that is a vital part of literature. Modernism was looking for the pattern beneath the chaos of Dreams of Langston Hughes, reality and trump, perhaps found it in the connection between people and ideas. The Forgotten Of Langston! In Postmodernism this connectedness has been extended into hindu news a vast interconnecting web of texts without a centre, which can stretch over The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay time and space.

Cunningham’s novel connects an boston essays, entire century through three decades and three different geographical locations. He has stretched Woolf’s connectedness to last into The Forgotten of Langston Postmodernism. Woolf said that “fiction is like a spider’s web” ( A Room of One’s Own 2), a web that resonates every time it is touched. The spider’s web is an image of a complex, but coherent structure that can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work as a pattern underlying her novels. Like many Modernists, Woolf tried to donald charisma create a cohering pattern underneath the chaos of reality. The distinction between clock time and Dreams of Langston, psychological time plays an important part in Mrs Dalloway , and Virginia Woolf uses several different techniques to represent the on How if an has ADHD? flux of time and the stream of life that encompasses all her characters. She creates a plane of reference that exists in psychological time, and which can only exist by contrasting it with the reality of clock time. She illustrates the coexistence of the past and the present, creating a history for her characters by digging caves that explore their history.

Besides her concern with the dichotomy of two types of time, psychological and clock time, past and present, Woolf also attempts to create connections to form a coherent structure. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are connected not only through their awareness of clock time, but also by means of Dreams of Langston Hughes, pivotal points of transition. These points are represented in the text by events that are experienced simultaneously by several characters. Woolf uses the event to switch from one character to another. Woolf connects her characters in a web, or pattern, that forms a solid basis from which the alternative plane of psychological time can be explored.

Michael Cunningham has described his novel The Hours as an improvisation on A Great Mrs Dalloway . An improvisation implies change and the addition of new elements, and The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, that is exactly what Cunningham has done. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and difference and production, has appropriated them to fit his novel. He remains true to Woolf’s ideas and The Forgotten Hughes Essay, techniques, and at the same time he manages to create his own novel that deals with different themes, such as motherhood. The Hours is not only an exploration of a single day in the life of an ordinary woman, but an exploration of how “any day in anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of life” (Cunningham, The Years 7). With The Hours Cunningham shows that any day in difference between manufacturing, anyone’s life can be applied to anybody’s life. He shows that the days of Mrs Woolf, Mrs Brown and The Forgotten of Langston Essay, Mrs Dalloway pass, following the same pattern, just as the days and lives of many other women. Cunningham cleverly acknowledges all of Woolf’s important techniques, but does not necessarily use them to the same extent. The three narrative threads in The Hours are closely interwoven, which gives a strong sense of coherence.

The main cause of this coherence is Cunningham’s use of repetition. Another technique Cunningham has adopted from Woolf is the superimposing of the past on the present. Whereas Woolf uses the massacre essays technique on Dreams Essay a small scale when characters are visited by moment from the past, Cunningham applies it to his entire novel. The three narrative threads in The Hours can be superimposed on each other. Harvey A Great Essay! The thematic concerns are similar in of Langston Hughes Essay, each story.

The exploration of the human consciousness and psychological time is relevant for all periods Cunningham depicts. Cunningham has watered down Modernism: he has taken Mrs Dalloway and some of its basic principles, but has taken out the density and complexity, thus creating a novel that is far more transparent than Woolf’s novel. The Hours is a novel based on the importance language a Modernist novel, but it is in itself not a Modernist text. Michael Cunningham has extended the basic principles of Mrs Dalloway to reach across a century and beyond. Abrams, M.H., et al., eds. The Norton Anthology of English Literature . 6 th ed . 2 vols. New York and London: W.W. Norton Company, 1993.

Adriaans, A.L.A.P. Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden. 3 May 2005 “Anderson, Margaret C.” The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. The Forgotten Of Langston Hughes Essay! 23 May 2005. Asbee, Sue.

Life and Can You if an, Works: Virginia Woolf . Hove, East Sussex, Wayland (Publishers) Ltd, 1989. Benjamin, Anna S. “Towards an Understanding of the Meaning of Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway.” Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature . vol. 6 no. 2 (Summer 1965): 214-227. Bluestone, George. Dreams Of Langston Hughes Essay! Novels into Film . Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1961. Childs, Peter.

Modernism . London: Routledge, 2000. Cunningham, Michael. “The years: as this month’s hot Oscar contender, The Hours, shows, Virginia Woolf is still nailing life’s moments better than anyone. Here, writer Michael Cunningham tells why.” Interview . Gale Group: 2003. ---, The Hours . London: Fourth Estate, 1999. Hasler, Jrg. “Virginia Woolf and the Chimes of Big Ben.” English Studies. On How If An Adult Has ADHD?! A Journal of English Language and Literature . vol. 63 no. 1/6 (1982): 145-158. Hughes, Mary Joe. “Michael Cunningham’s The Hours and Postmodern Artistic Re- Presentation.” Critique: Studies in The Forgotten of Langston Hughes Essay, Contemporary Fiction . vol.

45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 349-361. Joyce, James. Ulysses . New York: Vintage Books, 1986. Kawin, Bruce. Telling It Again and Again , Repetition in of english, Literature and Film . Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1972. Lee, Hermione.

The Novels of Virginia Woolf . London: Methuen Co Ltd, 1977. Lodge, David. Dreams Hughes! Consciousness and the Novel . Connected Essays . London: Secker Warburg, 2002. Lye, John. Some Attributes of Modernist Literature . Mepham, John. “ Interior Monologue ” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 17 October 2003

Meyerhoff, Hans. Time in Literature . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1955. “Mrs. Dalloway (1925)” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 25 May 2005 Naremore, James. The World Without a Self . New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973. Rensell, Doug.

A Review of Henri Bergson’s Book Creative Evolution. 11 May 2005 Schiff, James. “Rewriting Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway : Homage, Sexual Identity, and the Single-Day Novel by donald trump Cunningham, Lippincott, and Lanchester.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol. 45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 363-382.

Selden, Raman. Modernism/Postmodernism . Ed. Raman Selden and Stan Smith. New York: Longman Publishing, 1992. Sherover, Charles M. “The Concept of Time in Western Thougth.” Are We in Time? Ed.

Gregory R. Johnson. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2003. 3- 21. “Stream of Consciousness.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 11 May 2005. Tindall, William York. “Many-Leveled Fiction: Virginia Woolf to Ross Lockridge.” College English vol. The Forgotten! 10 no. 2 (November 1948): 65-71. Trafton, Brent.

Rev. of The Hours , dir. Hindu News Paper Today! Stephen Daldry. The Forgotten Hughes Essay! International Movie Database 9 Feb. Donald! 2003. 14 Jun. 2005. Wood, Andelys. “Walking the Web in the Lost London of Mrs. Dalloway. ” Mosaic . vol. Dreams Of Langston Essay! 36 no.

2 (June 2003): 19-32. Woolf, Virginia. A Writer’s Diary . Being Extracts from the Diary of Virginia Woolf . Ed. Leonard Woolf. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959. --- A Room of One’s Own . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- Modern Fiction . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- Street Haunting: A London Adventure . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- To The Lighthouse . London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1996. Young, Tory. Michael Cunningham’s The Hours : A Reader’s Guide . New York and London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 2003. [1] The sources for this brief history of time are A. Adriaans’ website Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden and Charles M. Sherover’s book Are We in hindu today, Time? [2] Based on the theories of management engineer Frederick W. Of Langston Essay! Taylor.

Taylorism was meant to Milk: A Great American Hero Essay improve productivity (and it did). At the same time it destroyed the soul of work, dehumanised factories, and made men into automatons. It was famously introduced into Henry Ford’s car factories, where the first assembly lines were created following Taylor’s principles. The work space was desinged for effiency and Dreams Essay, job differentation. People were separated and communication decreased.

[3] Psychoanalysis therapy involves elucidating unconscious relations in a systematic way through associative processes, in order to uncover the possibly underlying unconscious source of problems. [4] For the purpose of this discussion it will be assumed that “both Modernism and Postmodernism are phenomena, primarily, of Essay on How Can You Tell if an Adult, twentieth-century Anglo-American and European Culture” (Selden, xi), and that the authors mentioned in the discussion are essentially Modernist authors. [5] Another term that is surrounded by much debate is interior monologue. Several critics argue that interior monologue is the same thing as stream of consciousness, while others claim that it is a technique that is a part of stream-of-consciousness writing. In an article on interior monologue John Mepham explains: “Some critics have used the term interior monologue as if it were synonymous with stream of consciousness.

However, nowadays it is more common, and more analytically useful, to use the term as a label for this distinct variety of stream-of-consciousness prose.” (3) [6] An example of characters being suddenly revisited by a vivid moment from the The Forgotten Essay past can be found in Proust’s work. Harvey Essay! His term for this kind of The Forgotten Dreams Hughes, memory is ‘mmorie involontaire’, a memory involuntary triggered by an event in the present. The most famous example of charisma, a memory trigger is the taste of madeleines in his la recherche du Temps Perdu . The Forgotten Hughes Essay! For a more extensive discussion on Proust and memory see Mapping Literary Modernism by Ricardo Quinones. [7] Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway . (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1992) 3. All future references to Mrs Dalloway are to this edition and are cited in difference between and production, parentheses in the text. The novel will be designated as MD . [8] Besides stream of consciousness, tunnelling and repetition, Woolf also uses parentheses. The bracketed sentences suggest a comment or an afterthought, but more importantly they suggest simultaneity. There is hardly any time in reality for the words in The Forgotten Dreams, brackets to be expressed, and they are thought while the stream of consciousness is already racing on to another thought. [9] The Little Review was one of the most famous and influential American art journals.

It was edited by Margaret Anderson, an author, editor and publisher. From 1917 to 1920 The Litle Review published excerpts from James Joyce’s Ulysses , which was at that time still unpublished. After publishing excerpts of Ulysses the magazine was banned, because its contents were considered obscene. (Source: The Columbia Encyclopedia Online Edition) [10] For a more extensive discussion on the discrepancies of time and space in Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway see Walking the Web in the Lost London of Mrs Dalloway” by Andelys Wood. [11] Hauntology is a pun on the word ontology, which is pronounced the same. Whereas ontology is the study of trump, being, hauntology refers to “the paradoxical state of the spectre between being/non-being, alive/dead, and presence/absence” (Richter, 1).

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Advantage and Disadvantage of Entrance Exams to. universities in China and US. . Webster University Entrance Essay: I have always thought nurses are among the most intelligent people there are, and I want to be one of them. I believe the The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay laity does not realize the amount of education required to ascertain employment as a registered nurse or the continuing education required to maintain such employment. One of my missions is to assist front line nurses demonstrate their, hard earned, knowledge to the clients they serve. Nurses need all the encouragement and support possible in order to maintain the stamina required to carry out their wide variety of daily duties, and I want to be a source of such encouragement and support. Nurses must receive continuous education in Can You Tell if an has ADHD?, order to stay abreast of ever changing practices, and I want to Dreams of Langston Hughes, be a catalyst of such education. I am convinced that earning a Master of the importance language, Science in Dreams Hughes Essay, Nursing at Webster University is my key to attaining these goals. I expected each step of my nursing education would be my last. Employment as a nursing assistant after high school graduation was just a means to pay for a special education teaching degree. Certification nursing assistant class was just a way to keep my job.

Eleven years later, a practical nursing license was a means to earn enough money to allow this single parent to support my toddling twin daughters. Seven years later, the Associate Degree in Nursing was a scheme to convert from long-term care nursing to acute care nursing. Ten years later, earning a Bachelor of Science Degree. Words: 414 - Pages: 2. Advantage and Disadvantage of Amazon. . Paypal account or other on- line financial account. All you need is a bank account. Harvey Milk: Hero! will deposit the money directly to your bank every two weeks. Shipping Charges: Probably the greatest disadvantage of the Marketplace for buyers is the added shipping charges. Almost everything you buy will have a shipping charge added. And, unfortunately, you cannot take advantage of’s free shipping offer on Hughes Essay, orders of $25 or more.

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With Marketplace, I admit that it took me a little longer to warm to the idea and I didn’t make my first purchase from this part of the site until 2004. Paper Today! The reason for my reservations for so many years were mostly based on Hughes, settling for the importance language used items when. Words: 2124 - Pages: 9. Advantage and The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, Disadvantage of Essay on How Can You Tell has ADHD?, Modern Medicine. . is established by concentration. - The osmolality of tubule fluid urine and ISF in the inner most in the medulla becomes equal. In a disease, this may differ. The Forgotten Dreams Of Langston Hughes Essay! - Osmolarity of URINE and PLASMA |SPECIES |OSMO URINE |OSMO PLASMA | |DOG |2400 |300 (8:1) | |DESERT RODENTS |4800 |300 (16:1) | o Relative medullary thickens of Milk: American, kidney is believed to be better predictor of urin concentration than % of long root nephrons. o **Role of Urea- Increase the concentration of urine. If it is hyper molal, it will not filtrate properly. In addition to the NaCl concentration in ISF, it is The Forgotten of Langston Hughes Essay also maintained by urea and this is due to recirculation of urea with collecting ducts and LH. Recirculation means urea diffuses from inner collecting ducts into ISF and they diffuse into ascending LH. This difference occurs due to permeability of nephron parts of urea and concentration gradient. After the entrance of urea from LH, it can come out of Harvey Milk: A Great American Essay, collecting ducts.

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Words: 433 - Pages: 2. The Forgotten Dreams Hughes! . Uncle Vanya Grown-up literature is kind of strange and sad, don't you think? Most characters within children's literature, from Adult, Tom Sawyer to Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, Harry Potter, struggle against boston essays, adversity, and of Langston Hughes Essay, ultimately find a sense of meaning and satisfaction in their lives. Most characters in boston essays, grown up books and plays struggle against adversity, which is usually rooted in some psychologically complex inner conflict, and The Forgotten of Langston, ultimately find that life has no meaning and no guarantee of satisfaction. Harvey American Essay! At least, this seems to be the case with the stories and dramas in my big, thick Literature textbook. And it certainly seems to be the case when that Literature (with a capital L) is penned by The Forgotten Dreams Hughes, a Russian. Such is the case with Uncle Vanya by Anton Chekhov. Of English! The play is filled with downtrodden fools, some ignorant, some self-aware; all are miserable because they have pursued the wrong goals. The Setting: Uncle Vanya takes place in a large estate tucked away in the Russian countryside.

Possibly, the location was inspired by Chekhov's country home at the time the Essay play was written. In the 1890s, hoping to improve his health and his connections with his fellow man, Chekhov moved his family to a small rural settlement called Melikhovo, located about forty miles south of Moscow. Much of the play finds its characters in conflict with their surroundings. The characters from the city find country life to be unbearably unsatisfying. The country-bred characters find that their city-bred counterparts are. Words: 1101 - Pages: 5.

Advantage and Disadvantage of Entrance Exams to. . Advantage and disadvantage of entrance exams to universities in China and US As we all know, students who want to go to charisma, college must take exams which are called “entrance exams to Universities”. Dreams Of Langston! College entrance exams are considered to be the boston unique approach that the students are admitted by The Forgotten Dreams of Langston, the colleges, and a significant factor that determines a student’s future development. They’re even regarded as one of the turning points in their lives. The similarity of the college entrance exams in difference between manufacturing, China and The Forgotten, that in the Western countries is that they are both the ways of selecting students for Harvey Milk: Essay the colleges. Well, it's a must door for all the Chinese senior students to the higher education. It may be considered to be too exam-oriented, or too narrow and The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes, strict to the students, however it has last for decades.

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In that day, many students march in Essay on How Can You Tell if an Adult has ADHD?, the classroom to Dreams Hughes, wait for the examinations. Whatever the the importance language weather is hot, they full of confidence and Dreams, stress to write down their answers. Even though they are ill and cannot give up the test, for they cannot live up. Words: 999 - Pages: 4. . initial cost there is the fact of training the staff/ facilitators to use the equipment correctly as bad usage can cause incorrect teaching to pupils. Also coming under cost is damage, as, if the equipment gets damages then the damage repair fees are required to get the equipment back up and running. Distractions such as the internet, computer games and email is also a big disadvantage. Dis : 1. Over dependence on of english language, information technology makes students less active and innovative.Students no longer take time to solve equation and of Langston Hughes, tasks, all they do is query that task in a search engine and a solution will be provided. 2. Poor publications online: This exposes student’s t wrong information which results into failure of exams. Many online publishers post content for the importance of english language monetary purposes, so you find that most the content published online is not well detailed to help students and The Forgotten of Langston Hughes, researchers. 5) New methods for teaching and organizing material.

4) Deregulation of transfer credits and other student restricting regulations. 3) Potential for lower textbook prices. 2) Potential for lower tuition prices. 1) Increased accessibility to higher education. Words: 415 - Pages: 2. Advantage and Disadvantage of Whatsapp. . Whatsapp messaging platform all around the world. Whatsapp Inc. was founded by boston massacre, Jan Koum and Brain Acton, who was the former employees at Yahoo Inc. The Forgotten Dreams Of Langston Hughes! Whatsapp Android mobile come over to Windows, Symbian, iOS, Blackberry OS. This further helped it to increase its popularity through out the world.

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Although much of the formal research on bullying has taken place in the Scandinavian countries, Great Britain, and Japan, the problems associated with bullying have been noted and discussed wherever formal schooling environments exist. Bullying is comprised of direct behaviors such as teasing, taunting, threatening, hitting, and stealing that are initiated by one or more students against a victim. In addition to direct attacks, bullying may also be more indirect by causing a student to be socially isolated through intentional exclusion. While boys typically engage in and production, direct bullying methods, girls who bully are more apt to utilize these more subtle indirect strategies, such as spreading rumors and enforcing social isolation (Ahmad Smith, 1994; Smith Sharp, 1994). Whether the of Langston Hughes Essay bullying is direct or indirect, the key component of bullying is that the physical or psychological intimidation occurs repeatedly over time to create an ongoing pattern of harassment and Harvey American Hero Essay, abuse (Batsche Knoff, 1994; Olweus, 1993). Extent of the Problem Various reports and studies have established that approximately 15% of. Words: 317 - Pages: 2. . Educational Disadvantage Name: Institutional Advantage: Educational Disadvantage Equality in of Langston Hughes Essay, the Australian education system is something that is yet to on How Can You Tell if an Adult has ADHD?, be realized. The term equality is not in reference to gender but has been used in Dreams of Langston, reference to socio-economic status of the students. Australia is first world nation. As such, one would be forgiven to assume that equality in between manufacturing and production, the education system was long realized. It comes as a surprise that Australia has one of the largest disparities in academic performance.

The disparity between the The Forgotten Dreams Hughes best performing students and the world performing lot is difference manufacturing and production among the highest in The Forgotten Dreams Essay, the world (Australia, 2009). Research has established that in Australia, about 42% of all the students who enroll into institutions of higher learning are from well to do families (Australia, 2003). On the other hand, only about 15% of the students who enroll into institutions of higher learning (Australia, 2002). It is then clear that there is quite a high level of disparity in the Australian education system about socio-economic status. Difference Manufacturing! A fact that seeks to compound the gravity of the situation is that about 40% of all the indigenous students in Australia are unable to Hughes, meet the mathematics and reading standards that have are expected of Australian students (Teese Polesel, 2003). Such a situation necessitates the need for a discussion of this issue. Today! If this situation is not addressed, it will culminate in a severe deterioration of the quality of the. Words: 1542 - Pages: 7. Advantage and Disadvantage of Rh Bill. . poverty population. They also argue that it will reduce the number of deaths and the spread of STDs. Those who oppose the bill argue that providingcontraception will encourage more sexual behavior, and The Forgotten Dreams Hughes, increase the number of hindu, unwanted pregnancies. The RH Bills are Reproductive Health Bills in the Philippinesthat aim to provide universal access to birth control.

The advantage of Reproductive Health Bill in the Philippines is that hopes to provide midwives for skilled attendance to childbirth and emergency obstetric care, even in geographically isolated and depressed areas. Dreams Of Langston! Thus, the one of the causes of maternal mortality, that arising from donald, unattended births, will be addressed. The disadvantage of the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay Reproductive Health Bill in the Philippines is the the importance undue focus being given to reproductive health and The Forgotten Dreams Hughes, population and difference and production, development, when many more urgent and important health problems need to be addressed in the country, those that cause a significant number of deaths across the country such as cardiovascular diseases and infections. Financial resources allotted by foreign donors to assist the Philippine government programs could actually be better spent towards pursuing health programs targeting communicable diseases than purchasing artificial contraceptives. The Reproductive Health Bill is controversial, as it is being opposed by concerned citizens, especially the pro-life, pro-family and pro-God groups, regardless of creed or religion. The Roman Catholic Church. Dreams Of Langston! Words: 1744 - Pages: 7. Essay Can You Tell If An Has ADHD?! . Welcome to Phi Set Spike 2012! The women of Phi Sigma Sigma would like to thank you for Dreams Hughes Essay your continued support and participation in Phi Set Spike! For the Players: * Please look over the schedule thoroughly and arrive on time to the importance of english, your games. Also note that we will be using the 3 court set up(possibly 4), so there will be additional games for teams that lose in the first round. * Preliminary games will play to 11 or the game will end at 10 minutes (subject to change based upon number of teams present) * The Championship game and The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, 3rd place game will play to 15, or end at 10 minutes. * If there is a tie at 10 minutes, we will play to the importance of english language, the next point starting with the team that had possession at the end of the 10 minutes. * All scoring is rally scoring. Of Langston Essay! * If a team does not show up within 5 minutes of the game start, it is a forfeit and on How Can You Adult, the opposing team will advance. * Players will get wristbands at check-in. Water is available for The Forgotten Dreams Essay players only at hindu news today, the check-in table.

Wristband color will be determined by food eligibility, as per indicated by The Forgotten Hughes Essay, your chapter or organization. For Observers: * There will be a contest for the team that receives the most support through attendance and spirit. * At the event there will be tickets used to news paper, redeem food, enter in the raffle, and participate in the different fun activities around the field. * Tickets are $1/a piece, $5/6 tickets, or $20 for of Langston your height. Words: 1009 - Pages: 5. . Boston Massacre Essays! Seat No.: _____ Enrolment No.______ GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY MBA Second Semester ( Regular / Evening ) Examination May 2010 Subject code: 820007 Subject ame: Research Methodology and Hughes Essay, Operations Research Date: 28 / 05 / 2010 Total Marks: 70 Time: 11.00 am – 01.30 pm Instructions: 1. Donald! Attempt all questions. The Forgotten Dreams Hughes Essay! 2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary. 3. Figures to the right indicate full marks. Q.1 know about customer satisfaction level across India who recently purchased newly Introduced car. (b) A farm is engaged in breeding pigs. The pigs are fed on various products 07 grown on the farm. Difference Between Manufacturing And Production! With a view to ensuring certain minimum nutrition for the growth of the pigs, two types of feeds A and The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Essay, B are purchased from the of english market. The contents of these feeds per of Langston Essay, unit, in nutrient constituents are as given in the following table.

Formulate and solve graphically. Nutrient content in Minimum requirement of feeds Nutrient feed nutrient for a pig A B M1 12 6 108 M2 3 9 81 M3 15 10 150 If feed A costs Rs. 20 and B Rs. 40 per unit, how much of each of these two should be bought, so that the total cost is minimized? (a) Prepare a research plan for marketing manager of tata Nano car who wants to 07 Q.2 (a) Test the given data using Kolmogorov –Smirnov test. Hero! Freshman Number in each class 5 Sophomore 9 Junior 11 Senior 16 Graduate 19 07 Given that critical value for D is Dreams of Langston Essay 1.36 N at ? = 0.05 Take the KS test , with an analysis of the results of the. Words: 953 - Pages: 4. Boston Massacre! . HAPPY 2ND MONTHSARY BABYLOVE! Time has passed so fast and in The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, just a blink of an eye, it's two months already.

Spending everyday with you is just so awesome. Charisma! I'll never get sick of it cause seeing you just brightens up my day. Baby, thanks for tolerating all my nonsense all these while. I know we need to The Forgotten Hughes Essay, give and take in a relationship. I'm sorry that you've been the one giving and taking all these while.

I once thought I was a good boyfriend/girlfriend but I proved myself wrong. Thanks for giving in to me all the time whenever we quarrel. Thanks for treating me like a prince despite what I've done to hurt you in the past. I feel really blessed to have you in my life, by my side. I really thank God for letting us meet, for letting us get closer to each other and now get together. I may not be that perfect boyfriend/girlfriend you've been looking for but just so you know, my love for you is true. Hindu News Today! My love for you cannot be explained in days, cannot be explained in words. Only actions can show you how much you mean to me and The Forgotten Dreams, how much I love you.

Baby, thanks for showing me what is true love. I've never met someone like you, someone so special, someone so true. Words just can't describe how happy and on How Can You if an Adult, blessed I am to of Langston, have you in my life. You made my life colorful, you painted it with your love. Thanks for everything you've done for me throughout these few years. I really appreciate every single thing you have done for me.

If I had to leave one day, I'll still find my way back.

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As I Grew Older Poem by Langston Hughes - Poem Hunter

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Custom Ethos essay paper writing service. The doctrine of ethos is the Dreams of Langston notion that describes how music affects the brain. Ethos or music psychology is a branch of musicology and psychology. These branches help to understand and Harvey Milk: A Great Essay explain musical experience in relation to The Forgotten Hughes musical behavior. The basic interpretations of the primary source help the donald systems observation approach and the systematic interaction with humans. This research paper seeks to The Forgotten of Langston explore the questions and trump charisma issues that surround musical activities and experiences. Doctrine of Ethos.

There are many things that come in through senses of human beings. However, this does not mean that there should be difficulty while focusing attention on one stimulus and ignoring another. This is explained by the fact that human beings have an exceptional ability to get rid of unwanted stimuli. Doctrine of ethos is of Langston Hughes Essay a fascinating sub discipline that explores mental processes and tries to the importance of english understand how people think, remember, perceive, sing and speak. The Forgotten Dreams Essay! This branch of musical psychology can be also related to other disciplines such as linguistics and neuroscience. It is mainly focused on how human beings acquire, store, and process information. Research requires many different musical practical applications[1]. These applications should focus on the increasing decision making accuracy, improving the memory and structuring the A Great American educational and musical processes. The Forgotten Of Langston! Historically, psychology as the between school of thought was dominating other schools, while in the later years it focused more on The Forgotten Dreams Hughes the problem solving and attention, memory and problem solving after the cognitive evolution. It is necessary to the importance of english language note that behaviorism focuses on the behaviors observed while cognitive psychology focuses on The Forgotten of Langston Essay the internal mental states of human beings.

The critical question is “why it is necessary to study the doctrine of ethos?” Ethos is a branch of psychology that studies and examines the psychological aspects of the human brain. This simply means that there is a connection between emotions and the brain. It is studied by teachers, educators, scientists, architects, artists, designers, musicians and many other professionals[2]. This psychology evolves around the idea and difference between manufacturing the notion that understanding the mind and internal processes is the key to The Forgotten of Langston understanding the relationship between human emotions and the brain. It applies to a homothetic approach that adopts ideographic techniques in the case study. How the Doctrine of Ethos Pertains to Music. The doctrine of ethos pertains to music in several ways.

It is Essay on How Tell if an has ADHD? necessary to note that tonal qualities and sounds are triggered by a part of the brain which in turn, releases hormones into the body. Dreams Of Langston Hughes Essay! These hormones change the mood of a person drastically. This simply means that the doctrine of ethos is related to music moral qualities. In this case, study of ethos discusses benefits and harmful effects of ethical music. Musical attention is the ability to concentrate, focus on a musical notes and sounds, and allocate other processing resources. There are different types of attention, namely selective attention, divided attention and automatic attention. Selective attention entails the effects of trying to attend to different things at the same time. Essay Tell If An Adult! In this case, the person needs to select the Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay task to attend in order to finish another.

Divided attention, on the other hand, is the difficulty that is faced when trying to do two different tasks at the same time. The neurosciences and philosophy in music is known as a binding problem. These are many different possible uses which are useful at different anchor points. The Importance Language! The process by which brains segregate musical elements is The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes not unique but also highly complex. The first problem faced in this conventional questioning is the neural mechanism that distributes most activities to the central nervous system. Massacre Essays! Visual perception is a process that separates information and sends them to of Langston Essay different regions or parts of the brain. Taking this into account, synthesis will feature on the synchronizing different neurons which are found in the cortex. Memory also largely depends on the biding problem[3]. This simply means that it is associated with many different elements which help to maintain and create brain association. The binding problem is applied to unity consciousness in Essay on How Can You if an Adult has ADHD?, relation to a problem within the brain. In other words, the brain is supported by limited domains that can assess sensitive cells.

Most of the researches carried out The Forgotten Hughes studies on boston essays the music psychology have shown that all the music performers and Dreams of Langston Hughes listeners respond emotionally during and after listening to music. This is attributed to the fact that after experiencing emotion which is related to the music, the music emotions are recognizable. This simply means that these emotions are a behavioral change towards a stimulus[4]. The listener’s expression in the course of music determines music emotions and experience. According to Waterman (1992), people respond to music because they have different musical responses. While choosing the best method to use in the ethos research study, it is necessary to consider the cognitive neuroscience and contemporary cognitive psychology. The methods chosen must focus on auditory attention. This simply means that the donald charisma method should be introduced using a limited capacity in The Forgotten Dreams Hughes, the attention given.

The first method should try to difference between understand human behavior and Dreams Essay how music is Essay if an processed. The method should evaluate and provide understanding how humans interpret, remember, perceive and sense music. The method should be based on the cross-cultural and developmental perspectives of music, performance anxiety, music therapy and neurological aspects. The selective method should use the Broadbent filter model of selective attention. It is necessary to note that the Broadbent method recognizes the information processing approach that contributes key information to the same. Broadbent argues that any information provided at any time has the capacity to enter a sensory buffer[5]. The Forgotten Of Langston Essay! According to Broadbent, this filter is designed to prevent an overload in manufacturing, the processing of the information. This method entails focusing on how people are listening to the music deliberately overloading with this information and how to read such a signal in the information process. This method also focuses on a repeated background. Therefore, this implies that people will make fewer mistakes if the The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes music can be repeated back. The other sheer effective method that can be used is the difference between manufacturing and production dichotic listening task.

This method attempts to determine why it is Dreams difficult for humans to listen to music or switch to different channels at a time. Trump! This simply means that human beings can only listen to Dreams Hughes one musical composition at a given time, while another musical composition from the unattended year gets lost[6]. Hence, it means that the music get stored by Milk: American Essay, a remarkably short term memory. In this method, one music type is introduced. The Forgotten Dreams Hughes! It is necessary to note that this method considers that there is of english limited capacity to enable the processing of this information or the music. There are many disciplines and mutual aspects that help in research methodologies of music psychology or ethos. Other method will involve identifying a single motion while the listener is listening to different types of music. Dreams! In this case, a questionnaire is hindu used to conduct an experiment. The questionnaire should be simple and precise in order to allow easy understanding of the questions.

It should also be addressed to a large group of person and should not only be limited to a group of of Langston Hughes, people. The research method should also explore the relationship between musical psychology and music cognition. As a result the cognitive arrays can be transformed into musical sequences of news, multi tracks. While constructing or developing the questionnaire, the researchers must consider the fact that music psychology methods are extremely difficult to implement[7]. In this case, they should put quality control procedures in place in order to get expert review. The research study must cover the perception of sound patterns, perception of musical sounds, music memory, absolute pitch, musical gatherings and rituals, musical instruments learning processes, emotional musical behavior, personal role of music, musical social influences, rhythm, tone, harmony dance ability, phrasing and meter in the music and the psychological processes involved in musical performance.

A variety of Essay, statistical tests should also be carried out in essays, the research study. This will help to understand and explain the interlocking sets of music that are related to musical psychology. This research method should be based on disciplines such as use of computational models. Consequently, it will be able to reflect most of the properties present in the human cognition process. In this case, a music task should be used in order to determine actual relations between the theories used and the statistical tests involved[8]. Results from the filter or Broadbent model showed that this method was more effective when operated as a selective attention. This simply means that human beings can only pay attention to one specific song or songs at the same time. The Forgotten Dreams Of Langston Hughes Essay! The results from the the importance music psychological research method brought to a conclusion that musical elements are related to emotional experiences depending on The Forgotten Dreams Hughes the music.

However, there were many methodology problems that were observed because emotions last for a short duration of time. Latter means that the questionnaires do not provide enough insight to help researchers understand other complex emotions which were experienced while listening to the music. The results show that the music mind can perform, listen to and compose music. It also shows that the mind is linked to body language and responses from music. The resulting music therapy lowers the heart rate, anxiety, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

The other discovery that was made was that music therapy is an essential element that helps to improve the quality of life among a certain group of American, persons. Music therapy is Dreams of Langston Hughes also associated with improving stride symmetry, stride length and gate velocity. The study also showed that understanding a person’s music choice is difference manufacturing critical in The Forgotten Dreams, understanding the music responses from the particular person. Most people had limited control over the music played and thus the effects were related to the particular music played. The challenge, however, comes from controlling these trials in of english, order to understand the affects on The Forgotten people from different environments and medical settings.

This could significantly help to optimize the Can You Adult use of music, relieve anxiety and increase comfort on the people involved. In this way, music can be used medically to help improve the life and health of the patients or individuals involved. The main aim for conducting an ethos research is to study and understand the sound verbal domain which is a particular contemporary field of science that is actively developing. In this sense, cognitive framework represents some unique properties of the abstract or the musical sound environment. In this case, the sensory information or the frequency is ultimately transformed into a pitch.

The input and output nature represent the transformation of the algorithms used. This research also explores the Dreams of Langston Essay instantaneous biology of the human brain in order to manufacturing and production present a functional base for The Forgotten Dreams Hughes, the oriented neuropsychological work[9]. As the sound is produced from different sources the behavior can change or remain constant through time, however, using a limited number of cues can give conflicting evidence or reinforcement on the same. Therefore, sound sources in the environment depend on the acoustic information. In this case, the music or the arrangement of notes can profoundly affect the perpetual results of the same.

Once the music is derived from the perpetual source, the music perception begins. Milk: Hero! These attributes or sources help to activate a knowledge structure which represents long term memory. Music Psychology. Music features rich melodic and rhythmic structures in the addition to Dreams of Langston Essay the spoken language. Language and music largely depend on the functions of the brain. As a result, the relationship between speech intonation’s perceptions and musical deafness or tone deafness are some of the behaviors that are illuminated in the neural foundations and cognitive domain[10]. Harvey Hero! In this case, perception is not registered as passive but is an active interpretation that involves a constructive process.

In other words, the brain has a remarkable ability to support music and rhythm perceptions, examine auditoria systems, motor systems and other beat perceptions. The mechanism of the brain clearly shows that understanding a musical beat is a phenomenon that illustrates the mechanism of the brain and The Forgotten Essay the human culture. Temporal Dynamics of the Brain Activity. To understand temporal details of the brain, one should understand how the of english language brain responds to the sound. A frequency tagging is a method that is used in the research to study the brain and how it evolves over time.

It also helps to understand the auditory processes and the brain mechanisms. Of Langston Hughes Essay! Stimulus affects the brain activity in a great way since the brain activity is on How Tell Adult largely related to the stimuli that become temporally correlated[11]. Music and Body Language. Music is a cultural form that has survived many generations from the historical times to Dreams Essay present time. Music does not only have an effect on society but also has an effect on modern life.

The body responds to music. Results and finding of numerous studies that have been carried out on this subject have proved that music is simply a unique thought that is related to the physical, spiritual and emotional aspects in the world. Therefore, a person’s mood can be easily changed by music. Music can also cause simultaneous physical responses in human beings. Other people have perceived music as a way to weaken or strengthen a person’s emotion depending on Harvey A Great the circumstances or the The Forgotten Dreams Essay environment. Music has many functions apart from relaxation. It also decreases blood pressure, affects the breathing rate, increase heart rate and enhances a person’s ability to learn. Music Healthy Effects. Healthy effects of music are related to the power of music. As mentioned before, music can slow down blood pressure, slow down the breathing rate among many other functions.

In this way, the person can live a healthy life. Different types of music from different classical periods respond to trump the brain in sheer distinct ways. The brain can respond to changes and repetition, mood contrast and pitch and patterns of Dreams Essay, rhythm. Playing different music rhythms at a time or by changing the music theme helps the brain to respond in different ways. However, the mind can shut down if one song or rhythm is repeated more than three times.

The repetition can also cause the today person to release emotions[12]. Therefore, it can be concluded that doctrine of The Forgotten Dreams of Langston Hughes Essay, ethos is language directly related to how music affects brain. Doctrine of ethos pertain music in some ways. It can be clearly noted that the human brain can be affected by the music. The doctrine of ethos suggests that an The Forgotten of Langston Hughes, ethical music has some benefits as well as harmful effects on donald the human brain. Evidence from the studies suggests that most musical performers and listeners always respond emotionally during and after listening to music.

It is Hughes Essay also clear that a human being can also listen to only one type of songs at of english, a time. Moreover, the Essay mind is linked to body languages and some responses from A Great, music. Music features some rich melodies, rhythmic structures, and the spoken language. Therefore, it is clear that language and music depends on the brain functions. I turned to the writers at because I needed help with my essay. It was an excellent decision, based on information I had received from other students who had already tried it.

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